Table 1 Fabrication durations and voxel types and numbers of all prototyped soft devices.

The shown values refer to the time needed to magnetize and assemble voxels into each machine prototype. Curing of the bonding agents happens simultaneously during the assembly. A post-assembly curing of the machine on a hot plate or in an oven is performed to maximize the performance. This post-assembly curing does not require human intervention and is not counted in the durations here.

Prototyped devicesFabrication
duration (hours)
Number of voxels
3D ring5503218
Hollow cubic frame668680
Flower-shaped machine61271270
Starfish-shaped machine424240
Capsule-shaped machine2422
Peristaltic pump82962960
Anchoring device101849688