Table 3 Robotic systems for infectious diseases.

Robotic platformCategoryApplicationKey featuresRef.
VenousProClinical careBiological sample
collection
Automatic drawing of blood samples;
ultrasound guidance and force sensing;
tested on humans
(2528)
Swab OP robotClinical careBiological sample
collection
Semiautonomous oropharyngeal swab
robot; force control; tested on 20
patients (95% success rate)
(20)
RP-6Clinical careTelepresenceUsed in neurosurgery ICUs; teleoperated
over the internet using a joystick and
webcam
(40)
da VinciClinical careTeleoperationTeleoperated surgical robot widely used
in laparoscopy applications such as
urology, gynecology, etc.
(52)
AmbuBotPublic safetyEmergency assistanceAmbulance robot developed to assist
patients who requires urgent
assessment in dangerous environments
(58)
SHUYUPublic safetyTemperature monitoringAutomatic system for temperature
screening in outdoor environments
(168)
LightStrikePublic safetyDisinfectionAutonomous robot for fast and effective
disinfection of health care facilities using
UV light
(169)
senseFly eBeePublic safetyReconnaissanceDrones used to figure out where human
beings and macaques are possible to
interact
(72)
HelpMateLaboratory and supply
chain automation
Delivery and logisticsAutomated robotic system to transport
small-size cargos between hospital
departments
(82)
PathfinderLaboratory and supply
chain automation
Delivery and logisticsAutonomous transportation of material
in hospitals with simultaneous
localization, navigation, and mapping
(84)
SpeciMinderLaboratory and supply
chain automation
Delivery and logisticsAutonomous handling of laboratory
specimens in hospitals that can
accelerate their speed of distribution
(83)
eCobra 600 robotLaboratory and supply
chain automation
Manufacturing of
medical supplies
OMRON’s smart robot used in the
production line for developing rapid
COVID-19 antibody tests
(91)
TRINAOut-of-hospital careHome-based nursingTeleoperated nursing-assistant robot;
some nursing tasks can be automated
(109)
RoNAOut-of-hospital careHome-based nursingCarry people from a bed to a smart
wheelchair equipped with autonomous
navigation capabilities
(99)
Mood BoosterOut-of-hospital careSocially assistive robotsPersonal assistant robot focusing on
user’s mood by sensing the emotion
through audio and visual sensors with
AI techniques
(108)
CuDDLerOut-of-hospital careSocially assistive robotsRobotic teddy bear to provide
emotional and psychological support to
people in isolation
(170)