Table 2 Sensory encoding algorithms.

Ft, frequency at time t; At, amplitude at time t; ct, normalized contact value at time t; vt, velocity at time t; at, acceleration at time t; min, minimum value; max, maximum value. Note that for all algorithms, sensory feedback is off and no stimulation occurs when ct = 0.

Sensory encoding algorithm(s)Analytic formulation
BinaryFt = Fmin
At = Amin
Traditional linearFt = ct(FmaxFmin) + Fmin
At = ct(AmaxAmin) + Amin
Scaled traditional linearFt = 2ct(FmaxFmin) + Fmin
At = 2ct(AmaxAmin) + Amin
Biomimetic 1Ft={ct(FmaxFmin)+Fmin,vt<0(5vt+ct)*(FmaxFmin)+Fmin,vt0
At={ct(AmaxAmin)+Amin,vt<0(5vt+ct)*(AmaxAmin)+Amin,vt0
Biomimetic 2Ft = 186ct − 185ct−1 + 1559vt − 360vt−1 − 109vt−2 + 364at + 170at−1 − 3
At = Amin