Table 1 Dimensions, masses, actuator contractions, and descriptions of steel PVC electro-ribbon actuators.

In all electro-ribbon actuators, the electrode width was 12.7 mm, and the insulator consisted of two layers of 130-μm-thick PVC tape.

Electrode
length (mm)
Electrode
thickness (mm)
Conductor and
insulator mass (g)
Actuator
contraction (%)
Description
Standard100502.2899.38
High force10010002523.93Actuator force: 12.91 N
High stress101000.933.91Stress: 40.77 kPa
High contraction200202.9599.84Contraction: 99.84%
High-contraction rate10050013.281.48Average contraction rate: 1161% s−1
Peak contraction rate: 1985% s−1
High specific force10500.3617.05Specific force: 10164.25 N kg−1
High specific energy100502.2899.38Specific energy: 6.8809 J kg−1
High specific power10050013.281.48Average specific power: 51.45 W kg−1
Peak specific power: 103.41 W kg−1
High energy density10500.6368.97Energy density: 44.17 kJ m−3
High power density10050013.281.48Average power density: 424.45 kW m−3
Peak power density: 853.83 kW−1
Prebent70702.2496.30