Table 1 The design elements of the social robot.

Guidelines from research on interest development and human-robot interaction used in the design of the robot. Learning supports provided by the robot are indirect and, rather than targeting a specific mechanism or learning outcome, are in service of enhancing the social presence and effects of the robot.

IDDesign guidelineSource of evidence
DE1Providing students with autonomy in activities and choosing educational materials(53)
DE2Setting and monitoring reading goals(54)
DE3Providing materials that align with student topic interests and ability and support skill development(55)
DE4Providing a social partner that demonstrates interest in the reading activity(23)
DE5Reading out loud to a social partner(56)
DE6Having the robot maintain eye contact when speaking and averting its gaze while it is “thinking”(31, 57)
DE7Providing tailored recommendations for content(58)
DE8Making references to previous interactions(36)
DE9Incorporating personal information, feelings, and beliefs into dialogue over time(46)