Table 3 Muscle fidelity evaluation.

The number of muscles was counted based on the muscle names corresponding to those of the human. The numbers of muscles in the musculoskeletal robots developed by (12, 51, 52) are described in the comparison.

Number of muscles/Ratio to human
HumanAthlete robot*Pneumat-BSAnthrobKenshiroKengoro
Ratio (%)1005.8829.429.4
Arm (without hand)37391019
Ratio (%)1008.1024.327.051.4
Leg (without foot)427162124
Ratio (%)10016.738.050.057.1
Whole body
(without hand and foot)
Ratio (%)10020.837.749.1
Whole body (with hand and foot)133224053
Ratio (%)10016.530.139.1

*Legged robot

†One-armed robot