Table 1 Examples of the organic/synthetic makeup and performance of existing devices.

Selected papers detailing the synthetic (S) or organic (O) components of devices incorporating biological components in the previously described categories: structure (Str.), actuation (Act.), sensing (Sens.), and control (Con.). Relevant metrics for the devices are reported as available: velocity in body lengths (BL)/s for locomoting device and success rate (S.R.), where success rate is the percentage of total trials in which the devices successfully accomplished the locomotion task tested (e.g., following a line of a certain length). Dash entries indicate a lack of the specified component in the device. Blank entries indicate performance metrics that were not reported for a given device.

PaperYearStr.Act.Sens.Con.BLVel. (BL/s)S.R.%
Kuwana et al. (50)1995SSOS
Beer et al. (149)1998SSSS
Webb and Consilvio (150)2001SSSS
Herr and Dennis (46)*2004SOS120 cm0.33
Xi et al. (24)*2005SO138 μm0.27
Kim et al. (151)2006SO
Feinberg et al. (27)*2007SO3–6 mm0.008–0.045
Kim et al. (25)*2007SO2.5 mm0.034
Sato et al. (108, 109)2010S/OOOS/O56
Takemura et al. (19)2010OO2 mm0.003
Warwick et al. (152)2010SSSS/O46
Hayashi et al. (80)2011SSSS/O80
Chan et al. (26)*2012SO7 mm0.033
Kim et al. (98)*2012S/OSOO10–20 μm0.13–0.329
Latif and Bozkurt (112)2012S/OOOS/O10
Nawroth et al. (32)*2012SO2 mm0.4–0.7
Zhu et al. (114)*2012S/OOOS/O380 ± 20 mm0.046
Magdanz et al. (107)*2013S/OS/OS300 μm0.016–0.033
Cvetkovic et al. (45)*2014SO6 mm0.026
Ijspeert (153)2014SSSS
Martinez et al. (66)2014SSOS96
Park et al. (99)2014S/OOOO80
Williams et al. (31)*2014SO2 mm0.005
Barroso et al. (100)*2015S/OOOO2 μm3.5
Huang and Krapp (63)2015SSOS/O42
Sanchez et al. (111)2015S/OOOS/O70
Holley et al. (28)*2016S/OO9.2 mm0.015
Li and Zhang (97)2016S/OOOS/O89.5
Park et al. (33)*2016SOOS14 mm0.23
Webster et al. (21)*2016OO4 mm0.003
Webster et al. (48)*2016S/OO4 cm0.003

*Inclusion of the reported device in allometric scaling analysis (see the “Allometric scaling in robots with organic components” section).