Table 4 Long-term space robotic mission concepts (4).

ISRU, in situ resource utilization.

DestinationProposed mission
concepts
Proposed robotic
locomotion
Earth’s orbitSpace debris removal,
on-orbit servicing, and
assembly
Arm, hand/gripper,
harpoon
MoonSample return, ISRU,
exploration of
permanently shaded
craters, prepare for
manned base
Rover, arm, sampler, drill
MarsSample return, ISRU,
crewed base
Aeroshell, airplane,
helicopter, balloon,
hopper, swarms
VenusExplorationBalloon
MercuryExplorationRover
AsteroidSample return, ISRURover, hopper, arm,
harpoon
TitanExplorationAeroshell, aerobot,
balloon, lake lander,
submarine, ship,
cooperative robots
Europa/EnceladusExplorationSubsurface, submarine,
hopper
Gas giantsExplorationBalloon