Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Text
  • Experimental observation of supercoiling by twist insertion
  • Theoretical analysis of supercoiling by twist insertion
  • Experimental validation of supercoiling artificial muscle model
  • Theoretical estimation of torsional actuation and swelling geometry in plied composites
  • Swelling-induced dimensional changes without untwist
  • Effect of inserted twist on the tensile modulus and bending stiffness of two-ply composites
  • Supercoiling artificial muscle modeling procedure and predictions
  • Modeling of intercalation-induced DNA supercoiling and twist-induced supercoiling
  • Additional supporting experimental data
  • Demonstration application for supercoiling muscles
  • Appendix: List of definitions, acronyms, and symbols
  • Fig. S1. Torsional actuation by swelling twisted composite fibers.
  • Fig. S2. Tensile actuation in polyester-PAA composite fibers.
  • Fig. S3. Determination of bending and torsional stiffnesses of polyester-PAA composite fibers.
  • Fig. S4. Cyclic tensile actuation by swelling and deswelling twisted composite fibers.
  • Fig. S5. Twist-induced supercoiling: Modeling and experiments.
  • Fig. S6. Preparation of microtools.
  • Fig. S7. Examples of actuated microtools.
  • Fig. S8. Preparation of small-diameter composite twisted fibers.
  • Fig. S9. Tensile actuation measurements.
  • Fig. S10. Torsional actuation measurements.
  • Fig. S11. Theoretical approach to first supercoil loop formation.
  • Fig. S12. Calculated potential energies comparing twist only and coiled.
  • Fig. S13. Experimentally measured diameter ratios of a composite two-ply samples.
  • Table S1. Calculation steps involved in estimating contractile stroke.
  • Table S2. Calculation steps involved in estimating contractile stroke.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S8
  • References (6366)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Plectoneme formation and removal in twisted PAA yarn.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Plectoneme formation, removal, and chiral reversal in polyester-PAA loop.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Plectoneme formation and removal in polyester-PAA at isobaric 210 kPa.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Solenoid formation and removal in polyester-PAA at 900 kPa.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Solenoid formation and removal in PAN-PAA composite fiber.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Full sample view of isobaric plectoneme formation and removal in polyester-PAA composite fiber.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Fast plectoneme formation and removal in PAN-PAA composite fiber.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Multistrand PAN-PAA actuator array.

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