Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Section S1. Measurement of voxel magnetization
  • Section S2. Evaluation of the fabrication precision and tolerance to fabrication variances
  • Section S3. Characterization of the demonstrated functional soft machines
  • Section S4. Design, assembly process, and experimental details of the reported devices
  • Section S5. Compatibility of the proposed method with multiple kinds of materials
  • Section S6. Comparison between assembled and cast samples
  • Section S7. Extended discussion on mass production
  • Fig. S1. Illustrations of the mold casting and magnetizing steps of the proposed fabrication approach and its versatility.
  • Fig. S2. Magnetic characterization of the MMPs used in this work.
  • Fig. S3. Schematic illustrations of the face and edge bonding methods.
  • Fig. S4. Loading live stem cells to the microcages heterogeneously integrated to the anchoring soft machine top surface.
  • Fig. S5. Quantitative characterization of the assembly precision.
  • Fig. S6. Mechanical characterizations of the materials and comparisons against the neo-Hookean model.
  • Fig. S7. Finite element simulation–based investigation of the effect of the fabrication imperfections on the two-ring anchoring machine performance.
  • Fig. S8. Observations of the shape morphing of the peristaltic pump.
  • Fig. S9. Liquid biopsy of the capsule.
  • Fig. S10. Analysis of the magnetic attraction force on device deformation.
  • Fig. S11. Illustration of the jig-assisted fabrication of the exemplar 3D ring.
  • Fig. S12. Designs of the hollow cubic frame, simulation verification, fabrication process, and cargo transport demonstration.
  • Fig. S13. Designs of the flower-shaped machine, simulation verification, and fabrication process.
  • Fig. S14. Designs of the starfish-shaped machine, simulation verification, and fabrication process.
  • Fig. S15. Designs of the capsule-shaped machine and its fabrication process.
  • Fig. S16. Schematic illustrations of the electrical setup for the pulsing magnetic field.
  • Fig. S17. Designs of the peristaltic pump and illustrations of its fabrication process.
  • Fig. S18. Experimental setup to make a rotating magnetic field for the peristaltic pump.
  • Fig. S19. Designs of the capsule and its fabrication process.
  • Fig. S20. Designs of the anchoring machine and illustrations of its fabrication process.
  • Fig. S21. Exemplar cantilever beam made of voxels based on five different kinds of materials.
  • Fig. S22. Shape morphing comparison between assembled and cast cantilever beams.
  • Table S1. Comparison of the proposed fabrication method with the ones previously reported in the literature.
  • Table S2. Material characterization of various kinds of materials used in the reported machines.
  • Legends for movie S1 to S6
  • Reference (49)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Video recordings of the representative steps in the fabrication of the exemplar 3D ring machine.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Video recordings of the representative steps in the fabrication of the functional peristaltic pump machine.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Experimental results of a small-scale magnetic soft peristaltic pump that pumps mouse whole blood and transport a solid sphere in a rotating uniform magnetic field.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Experimental results of the reported miniature magnetic soft capsules.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Experimental results, including an experimental trial and a control trial, of a miniature magnetic soft capsule taking liquid samples and demonstrate potentials for future liquid biopsy applications.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Experimental results of a small-scale magnetic soft anchoring machine.

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