Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Note S1. Conceptual design of a swimming leaf and disk.
  • Note S2. A quasi-steady 2D model for active flutter dynamics.
  • Note S3. Purpose and details of the experiments.
  • Note S4. Energy conversion efficiency of a swimming sheet.
  • Fig. S1. Falling styles of disks.
  • Fig. S2. Time-evolving horizontal movements of the falling leaf with a point mass located in different positions (P0 to P8).
  • Fig. S3. Definition of the principal flutter axis.
  • Fig. S4. Flutter dynamics modulation induced by inhomogeneous density distribution and corresponding reorientation of the principal flutter axis.
  • Fig. S5. Component design and structure of a swimming leaf and disk.
  • Fig. S6. Transient responses and characterization of a buoyancy skin.
  • Fig. S7. A strategy for estimating time-varying buoyancy responses.
  • Fig. S8. A swimming leaf based on a buoyancy skin.
  • Fig. S9. Geometric criterion for disk approximation.
  • Fig. S10. Kinematics of a swimming disk responding to quasi-static uniform buoyancy distribution (movie S2).
  • Fig. S11. Active flutter behaviors of a swimming disk under quasi-static uniform buoyancy distribution.
  • Fig. S12. Comparison and symmetry in dynamics of falling/swimming behavior.
  • Fig. S13. Directional active flutter behaviors of a swimming disk under quasi-static nonuniform buoyancy distribution (movie S3).
  • Fig. S14. Flutter axis reorientation in directional active flutter behaviors.
  • Fig. S15. Time-evolving flutter axis reorientation for steering control (movie S4).
  • Fig. S16. Control scheme for the swimming leaf.
  • Fig. S17. Straight, directional fluttery gaits with depth maintenance.
  • Fig. S18. A long-term journey of a lifelike swimming leaf (movie S5).
  • Fig. S19. Ultraflexible swimming robotic sheet negotiating a small gap (movie S6).
  • Fig. S20. Swimming robotic sheets for marine environmental applications.
  • Fig. S21. A buoyancy skin for underwater cup manipulation (movie S9).
  • Fig. S22. A standard swimming disk under turbulence.
  • Fig. S23. Experimental setup for swimming locomotion and characterization.
  • References (5256)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). A swimming leaf versus a falling leaf.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Active flutter of a swimming disk under uniform buoyancy distribution.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Directional active flutter of a swimming disk under nonuniform buoyancy distribution.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Versatile fluttery swimming gaits through sequential reorientation of the principal flutter axis.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Long-term controlled maneuvering of a swimming leaf.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of an ultraflexible swimming robotic sheet negotiating a small gap.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of a swimming robotic adhesive sheet.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of a swimming robotic oil-skimming sheet.
  • Movie S9 (.mp4 format). A buoyancy skin for underwater cup manipulation.

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