Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Fig. S1. Fabrication and processing of a cavatappi artificial muscle and its elemental unit.
  • Fig. S2. Side, cross-sectional, and top views of a cavatappi along with its dimensions.
  • Fig. S3. Experimental setups used to measure axial strain of the precursor tube, radial strain for the precursor tube, the torsional actuation of an elemental unit of a cavatappi, and the axial actuation of a cavatappi artificial muscle.
  • Fig. S4. Pressure-volume curve used to calculate the energy in during an actuation contraction and force-displacement used to calculate the work generated during an actuation contraction.
  • Fig. S5. Actuation under a load of 1.1 kg to show the maximum stress and under a load of 0.1 kg to show maximum strain.
  • Fig. S6. The torsional actuation of a cavatappi artificial muscle elemental unit.
  • Table S1. Values obtained from fig. S4.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Mechanism of cavatappi actuation.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Cavatappi actuation.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Prestretched cavatappi actuation under no load.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Mini-cavatappi actuation.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Fifth digit flexion and extension of a robotic hand.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Strain potential energy storage.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). High controllability.

Files in this Data Supplement: