Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. FT-IR spectrum of different active hydrogels.
  • Fig. S2. Instantaneous velocity of hydrogel and the frequency of velocity changes.
  • Fig. S3. Using CoCl2 as color indicator to visualize the velocity of hydrogel water striders.
  • Fig. S4. Modulus and morphology characterization of hydrogel during water intake process.
  • Fig. S5. Velocity and mass swelling ratio of one hydrogel water strider in nine repeating cycles.
  • Fig. S6. Velocity and mass swelling ratio of hydrogel with different amounts of cross-linkers ranging from 0.5 to 10 volume % and different types.
  • Fig. S7. AFM images of the hydrogel with different cross-linker amounts ranging from 0.5 to 10 volume %.
  • Fig. S8. Contact angle changes of hydrogels with different cross-linker amounts in 30 min.
  • Fig. S9. The velocity of p(HEMA-co-AA) hydrogel moving on different solutions with different surface tension coefficients.
  • Fig. S10. Locomotion of hydrogel water strider on aqueous solutions with different pH values.
  • Fig. S11. Photos of hydrogel processed by different methods.
  • Fig. S12. Locomotion of hydrogels with symmetric shapes.
  • Fig. S13. Energy of two menisci on infinitely long surfaces as a function of the separation between two surfaces with different wettability.
  • Fig. S14. Floating plastic debris collection and surface wettability identification via the hydrogel water strider.
  • Fig. S15. Controlled locomotion of hydrogel water strider through heat.
  • Fig. S16. Freewill locomotion and meniscus climbing of humidity- and pH-responsive hydrogel water strider.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S10

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Hydrogel water strider with asymmetric materials.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Hydrogel water strider with geometry asymmetry and different edge lengths.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Gear-shaped hydrogel water strider.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Hydrogel water strider in confined environment.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Hydrogel water strider in confined environment with opening.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Ball gameā€“like locomotion.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Intelligent manipulation of objects.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Locomotion of different types of stimulus-responsive hydrogel water striders.
  • Movie S9 (.mp4 format). Freewill moving and meniscus climbing.
  • Movie S10 (.mp4 format). Plastic debris collection and surface wettability identification.

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