Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Text
  • Fig. S1. FTIR spectra of the hydrogel cross-linker.
  • Fig. S2. 1H NMR spectra.
  • Fig. S3. Hydrogel composition analyses.
  • Fig. S4. Hydrogel surface properties.
  • Fig. S5. Mechanical property evolution versus hydrogel water content.
  • Fig. S6. Hydrogel rheology properties.
  • Fig. S7. Control experiments for self-healing performance.
  • Fig. S8. Hydrogel conductivity.
  • Fig. S9. Hydrogel adhesion performance variation versus stimulation voltage.
  • Fig. S10. Adhesion performance of the hydrogel with an enlarged sample length.
  • Fig. S11. Effect of water content on the hydrogel electrical response.
  • Fig. S12. Electrochemical characteristics of the hydrogel cross-linker.
  • Fig. S13. Electrochemical characteristics of the hydrogel.
  • Fig. S14. The method for hydrogel surface pH control.
  • Fig. S15. Effect of surface pH on the hydrogel adhesiveness.
  • Fig. S16. Electrically induced hydrogel surface composition variation.
  • Fig. S17. Electrodeposition of the cross-linker solution.
  • Fig. S18. Morphology and composition evolutions of the substrate surfaces after hydrogel attachment/detachment.
  • Fig. S19. Electrically triggered attachment of the hydrogel to different substrates.
  • Fig. S20. Hydrogel self-healing during attaching/detaching process.
  • Fig. S21. The structure of robot no. 1.
  • Fig. S22. Three-view of robot no. 1.
  • Fig. S23. The whole circuit for robot no. 1.
  • Fig. S24. The structure of robot no. 2.
  • Fig. S25. Three-view of robot no. 2.
  • Fig. S26. The structure of robot no. 3.
  • Fig. S27. Three-view of robot no. 3.
  • Fig. S28. The electrical stimulation mode for robot no. 3 climbing.
  • Fig. S29. Molecular structure extension of the hydrogel design.
  • Fig. S30. Attaching/detaching performance of the hydrogel on nonconductive glass.
  • Fig. S31. Mechanical and adhesion performances of the dehydrated hydrogels.
  • Table S1. Characteristic peaks of FTIR spectra.
  • Table S2. Summary of hydrogel mechanical performances.
  • Table S3. Parameters of servo for robot no. 1.
  • Table S4. Parameters of reduction motor for robot no. 2.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S12
  • References (62, 63)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Self-healing experiment.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Adhesion generation to carry 100 g of weight.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Adhesion generation on stainless steel.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Adhesion measurement on a tensile machine.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Reversible attachment/detachment on stainless steel.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Electrolysis of water in a TB solution.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Robot no. 1 climbing on near-vertical (85°) stainless steel surface.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Robot no. 1 climbing on inverted stainless steel surface.
  • Movie S9 (.mp4 format). Robot no. 2 climbing on vertical (90°) stainless steel surface.
  • Movie S10 (.mp4 format). Robot no. 2 climbing on vertical (90°) copper surface.
  • Movie S11 (.mp4 format). Robot no. 2 climbing on inverted copper surface.
  • Movie S12 (.mp4 format). Robot no. 3 climbing on near-vertical (85°) copper surface.

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