Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials, synthesis, characterizations, and closed-loop control
  • Fig. S1. Schematic of fabrication process of UT gel and ITUC gel.
  • Fig. S2. Images of hydrogels made by different methods in the cross-sectional view.
  • Fig. S3. SEM images of UT gels and ITUC gels with different cross-linking densities.
  • Fig. S4. Phase angles of ITUC gels with different cross-linking densities.
  • Fig. S5. Mechanical properties and conductivities of the CP-percolated stimuli-responsive hydrogels made by different methods.
  • Fig. S6. Conductivities and mechanical properties of the CP-percolated stimuli-responsive hydrogels compared with literatures.
  • Fig. S7. The normalized conductivities of different conductive hydrogels.
  • Fig. S8. The deswelling rate of UT gels and ITUC gels with different cross-linking densities.
  • Fig. S9. The deswelling rate of a conventional PNIPAAm hydrogel synthesized in water solution on the scale of minutes.
  • Fig. S10. The contraction strength and modulus of ITUC gels in comparison with other hydrogels.
  • Fig. S11. The bending of PVA and ITUC bimorph gel.
  • Fig. S12. The comparisons of phase angles and real impedance between UT gel and ITUC gel.
  • Fig. S13. Photographs of exteroceptive bending test.
  • Fig. S14. Photographs of exteroceptive compression test.
  • Fig. S15. The application of the ITUC gel as a human motion sensor.
  • Fig. S16. The demonstration of somatosensitive actuating CP-percolated LCE material.
  • Fig. S17. Initial performance (before optimization) of the closed-loop controlled elongation/shortening of artificial arm at targeted lengths.
  • Table S1. Comparison of CP-PNIPAAm hydrogels fabricated by different methods.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S7
  • References (5866)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Object lifting under NIR light.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Phototropic behavior with computer simulation.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Object grasping in hot water.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Proprioceptive shortening and elongation.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Proprioceptive bending and unbending.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Object shape recognition by proprioceptive grasping.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Closed-loop deformation control demonstration.

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