Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Text SI. Analysis of the mechanical properties of SEA actuators.
  • Text SII. Calculation of the energy and power density.
  • Text SIII. Calculation of the thickness of platinum oxide layer.
  • Text SIV. Mechanical simulation of the SEA devices.
  • Fig. S1. TEM images of platinum membranes grown by ALD for different numbers of cycles.
  • Fig. S2. Fabrication process of a unidirectional SEA device.
  • Fig. S3. Statistical data for bending curvature versus applied voltage.
  • Fig. S4. Long time curvature measurement of the SEA after oxidation at 1.2 V for 2 s.
  • Fig. S5. By maintaining the SEA actuator in a full-cell configuration, one can apply a voltage to tune the memorized curvature.
  • Fig. S6. Electrical cycling stability of SEAs for 2000 cycles.
  • Fig. S7. In-plane conductance measurements of platinum thin films during oxidation.
  • Fig. S8. Cyclic voltammetry of a 2-nm-thick sputtered Ti layer.
  • Fig. S9. In situ characterization of the cyclic voltammetry and bending curvature versus applied voltage of a SEA actuator with Ti as the alternative inert layer in the OH (blue) and oxidation (yellow) regimes.
  • Fig. S10. Design of the kirigami/origami-based micromachines and microstructures.
  • Fig. S11. Simulation of the self-folding of the kirigami/origami-based micromachines and microstructures.
  • Table S1. Literature survey of the performance of voltage-driven planar actuators.
  • Table S2. Literature survey of additional important performance metrics of voltage-driven planar actuators.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S4
  • References (48, 49)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Shape-memory effect in a gripper.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Electrical bending of Pt/TiO2 and Pt/Ti SEA actuators.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Kirigami-based electrically programmable shape-memory micromachines.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Origami-based electrically programmable 3D microstructures.

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