Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Text
  • Fig. S1. Characterization of magnetic particles.
  • Fig. S2. High-resolution XPS spectra of the PDA coated magnetic particles.
  • Fig. S3. Optical images and FIs show the size and component of the MSCSMs.
  • Fig. S4. SEM images, EDS spectra, and enlarged SEM views showing the stem cell spheroids without and with magnetic particles.
  • Fig. S5. SEM images showing the inner structure of stem cells spheroid without the magnetic particles encapsulated inside, and the MSCSM with the magnetic particles.
  • Fig. S6. Cytotoxicity of different amounts of magnetic particles to the stem cells and 3T3 cells.
  • Fig. S7. Bar graph showing the comparison of the cytotoxicity of different amounts of pure magnetic particles and PDA functionalized magnetic particles.
  • Fig. S8. Long-term batch storage of the MSCSMs.
  • Fig. S9. Differentiation capability of the MSCSMs into different kinds of tiny cell robots.
  • Fig. S10. Generation of Janus cell microrobots with anisotropic structure or component.
  • Fig. S11. Potential aggregation of the magnetic particles during the magnetic actuation and digestion processes.
  • Fig. S12. Motion stability and fluorescence stability of the MSCSM with long-time locomotion under magnetic field.
  • Fig. S13. Motion of the MSCSMs on the surfaces with different viscosities.
  • Fig. S14. Motion of the MSCSMs on the surfaces with different wettabilities.
  • Fig. S15. Endoscopic delivery and locomotion of a swarm of MSCSMs in pig stomach.
  • Fig. S16. Successive BF, FI, and merged images showing the spreading and proliferation process of the MSCSM on a culture dish.
  • Fig. S17. Successive BF, FI, and merged images showing the spreading and proliferation process of the MSCSM on the 3T3 cell film.
  • Fig. S18. Optical images showing the spreading and proliferation process after the magnetic field actuated delivery on a culture dish.
  • Fig. S19. CLSM images showing stem cell configurations from the enlarged views of the center and edge of the spread MSCSM on a culture dish.
  • Fig. S20. Fluorescent images showing the spreading of two adjacent MSCSMs on a culture dish.
  • Fig. S21. US imaging-guided locomotion and delivery.
  • Fig. S22. MRI guided locomotion of MSCSMs.
  • Fig. S23. In vitro repairing of the scratched area and proliferation of MSCSMs on the scratches of 3T3 cell monolayers.
  • Fig. S24. MSCSMs enhanced the migration of 3T3 cells in vitro.
  • Table S1. Summary of the previous imaging methods during the biomedical applications of microrobots.
  • Table S2. The potential application regions of the proposed MSCSMs inside the body.
  • Table S3. Summary of different imaging modalities of microrobots towards in vivo applications.
  • References (4458)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Remote actuation of MSCSMs on tilted surfaces and against liquid flows using magnetic fields.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Controlled locomotion of MSCSMs in different surfaces and on-demand spreading and proliferation under the tracking of fluorescent imaging.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). US imaging-guided actuation and delivery of MSCSMs.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Swarm locomotion of multiple MSCSMs on the uneven mucosa of pig stomach assisted by endoscopy.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Rapid and high-precision delivery of the MSCSMs transesophageal to the bile duct under combined imaging modalities in a real-time fashion by the EMADIS.

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