Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Text S1. Formula derivation.
  • Text S2. Sensor responses when touching ferromagnetic materials.
  • Fig. S1. Magnetization loop of the flexible magnetic film.
  • Fig. S2. The sensing range and sensitivity of the sensor under different magnetic period of the flexible magnet.
  • Fig. S3. Sensitivities of the sensor for the normal and shear forces.
  • Fig. S4. Response time of the sensor (15 ms).
  • Fig. S5. The simulation result of the magnetic flux density distribution of the flexible magnet.
  • Fig. S6. Relationship between the magnetization manner of the flexible magnet and the corresponding force decoupling ability of the sensor.
  • Fig. S7. Receptive field (x directional response Bx) of all nine taxels.
  • Fig. S8. Receptive field (y directional response By) of all nine taxels.
  • Fig. S9. Receptive field (z directional response Bz) of all nine taxels.
  • Fig. S10. Localization procedure using responses of two neighboring taxels.
  • Fig. S11. Localization error using responses of every individual taxel as the inputs of the neural networks, where the error bars represent SDs of the localization error across 10 trials.
  • Fig. S12. Hysteresis curve of the sensor output during a cycle of loading and unloading (0 to 230 kPa).
  • Fig. S13. Repeatability test of the sensor over 30,000 cycles.
  • Fig. S14. Signal-to-noise ratio model of the sensor.
  • Fig. S15. Schematic illustration of the data collection process.
  • Fig. S16. Measurements of the magnetic strength on the strong and weak sides of the magnetic film.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Real-time contact position tracking of a rolling ball.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Adaptive grasping of an egg with dynamic disturbance.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Adaptive grasping of a water-filling bottle.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Teleoperated needle threading.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Sensor responses when touching ferromagnetic materials.

Files in this Data Supplement: