Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. The Bluebot 3D vision system.
  • Section S2. Controlled dispersion.
  • Section S3. Dynamic circle formation and milling.
  • Section S4. Multibehavior search experiments.
  • Section S5. 3D tracking.
  • Fig. S1. Additional components of the Bluebot platform.
  • Fig. S2. Example scenarios for the blob detection algorithm.
  • Fig. S3. Time complexity of rapid LED blob detection at an image resolution of 256 × 192.
  • Fig. S4. Camera and robot coordinate systems.
  • Fig. S5. x and y error in the Bluebot’s position estimation for 24 cases.
  • Fig. S6. Error in the z direction as a percentage of distance.
  • Fig. S7. Overall (x,y,z) error as a function of distance.
  • Fig. S8. Interrobot distances during single dispersion/aggregation.
  • Fig. S9. Interrobot distances during repeated dispersion/aggregation.
  • Fig. S10. Number of visible robots during controlled dispersion.
  • Fig. S11. Target distance and number of robots influence interrobot distances during dispersion.
  • Fig. S12. Seven robots arranged in a regular polygonal formation with line-of-sight sensors tangential to each other.
  • Fig. S13. Expanded view of the red quadrilateral in fig. S12.
  • Fig. S14. Example configuration of two robots to show that the regular polygon formation of Theorem 1 is the only stable formation.
  • Fig. S15. A pathological initial configuration for the case r_0 > R.
  • Fig. S16. A regular polygon configuration with field-of-view sensors (cf. fig. S12 for line-of-sight sensors).
  • Fig. S17. Geometry for calculating the milling radius with field-of-view sensors.
  • Fig. S18. Tank setup.
  • Fig. S19. Schematic side view of the tank showing the overhead camera and the salient parameters.
  • Fig. S20. Schematic of the tank view as seen from the overhead camera.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Introduction to Blueswarm.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Collective organization in time.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Collective organization in space.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Dynamic circle formation.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Multibehavior search operation.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Summary and highlights.

Files in this Data Supplement: