Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Text S1. Actuation mechanism of SMA wires.
  • Text S2. Characterization of NiTi-Pt composite wires.
  • Text S3. Functionality and performance of the proposed artificial muscle concept.
  • Text S4. Evaporation of methanol experiment.
  • Text S5. Model for the diffusion of methanol vapor.
  • Text S6. Determination of the stiffness coefficient of the leaf spring.
  • Text S7. Tethered stationary experiments.
  • Text S8. Thermodynamic model of the artificial muscles.
  • Text S9. Fuel versus electricity as the energy source for RoBeetle.
  • Text S10. Experimental estimation of friction coefficients.
  • Text S11. Dynamic model of the locomotion gait.
  • Text S12. Locomotion on surfaces with different levels of roughness.
  • Text S13. Robot-environment interaction experiment enabled by onboard RFID chip.
  • Fig. S1. Fabrication of a NiTi-Pt composite wire.
  • Fig. S2. Experimental characterization of a NiTi-Pt composite wire.
  • Fig. S3. Experimental signals showing the functionality and performance of a catalytic artificial muscle operating at 1 Hz.
  • Fig. S4. Evaporation rate of methanol inside a fuel tank.
  • Fig. S5. Experimental estimation of the stiffness coefficient of a leaf spring.
  • Fig. S6. Measurement of static friction coefficients for a RoBeetle prototype in eight different robot-surface interaction conditions.
  • Fig. S7. Idealized geometrical configuration, acting forces and input used to model the dynamics of RoBeetle.
  • Fig. S8. Numerical simulation results of autonomous crawling inside a gently moving atmosphere (8 s).
  • Fig. S9. Antenna design for the RFID chip.
  • Table S1. Energy densities and specific energies of various sources of power.
  • Table S2. Work densities and power densities of widely used actuation methods.
  • Table S3. Physical parameters of the tested RoBeetle prototype.
  • Table S4. Locomotion velocities of various robots and arthropods.
  • Table S5. Experimentally estimated signed friction coefficients used in the numerical dynamic simulations (Fig. 5C).
  • Table S6. Parameters of the RoBeetle prototype used in the numerical dynamic simulations (Fig. 5C).
  • Table S7. Parameters of the input signal used in the numerical dynamic simulations.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S9
  • References (52117)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Fuel evaporation experiment.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Tethered stationary experiment.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Thermal camera video.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Autonomous crawling experiments under two atmospheric conditions.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Climbing ramps.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Crawling on surfaces with different levels of roughness.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Crawling with payloads.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Outdoor crawling.
  • Movie S9 (.mp4 format). Robot-environment interaction experiment enabled by onboard RFID microchip.

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