Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Text
  • Fig. S1. Longitudinal dimensions and weight breakdowns of the X-winged tailed ornithopter.
  • Fig. S2. Elastic properties of hinges for flapping flexible wings.
  • Fig. S3. Transition between hovering and angled forward flight by elevator control under nearly constant throttle.
  • Fig. S4. Height dip when the ornithopter transited too fast from hover to forward flight, followed by a continuation of high-speed dart when the ornithopter was not pitched up in time.
  • Fig. S5. Time histories of flight distance, altitude and angles during stick-free nose-down glide as extracted from data in Fig. 8 and movies S7 and S8.
  • Fig. S6. Comparison between our previous design (240-mm span) and current design (280-mm span).
  • Fig. S7. Measurement setup for the propeller.
  • Fig. S8. Reported electrical power loading (T/IV) with respect to body mass and motor mass, respectively.
  • Fig. S9. Feasibility of other drones to perform flight arrest.
  • Table S1. Specifications of propeller designs under test.
  • Table S2. Effects of axle whirling in different propulsion devices.
  • Table S3. Hovering performance of various reported X-wing ornithopters.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S9

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Top view showing the low-loss drive of flapping X wings on nylon hinges.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Side view showing the low-loss drive of flapping X wings on nylon hinges.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Vertical takeoff and ascent (climb).
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Aerobatics performed by an X-winged ornithopter with nylon hinges for elastic energy storage.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Recovery of glide stability after a flip upside down.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Height dip during the fast hover-to-forward transition and subsequent high-speed dart.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Unpowered dive with tail at neutral position.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Unpowered dive with tail pre-elevated.
  • Movie S9 (.mp4 format). Pulling up a dive and climb to hover.

Files in this Data Supplement: