Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

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  • Fig. S1. Magnetic actuation setup and snapshots from the locomotion videos in whole blood.
  • Fig. S2. Twenty-four–hour viability assessment of J774A-1 cells interacting with microswimmers (tissue culture plate).
  • Fig. S3. SEM images of five-turn microswimmers made from PEGDA and their interactions with the macrophages.
  • Fig. S4. Time-lapse tracking of a microswimmer during phagocytosis.
  • Fig. S5. Flattening over the microswimmers by macrophages through membrane protrusions.
  • Fig. S6. Macrophage-microswimmer interactions.
  • Fig. S7. Macrophages accommodate themselves to internalize the microswimmers by growing their size.
  • Fig. S8. Size-phagocytosis relationship.
  • Fig. S9. Optical microscopy images of unstimulated splenocytes-microswimmer interactions over 96 hours.
  • Fig. S10. Optical microscopy images of LPS-stimulated splenocytes-microswimmer interactions after 24 and 48 hours.
  • Fig. S11. Optical microscopy images of LPS-stimulated splenocytes-microswimmer.
  • interactions after 72 and 96 hours.
  • Fig. S12. Metabolic activity rate and proliferation of splenocytes interacting with microswimmers.
  • Fig. S13. Fluorescence intensity analysis of actin ring after the helical geometry of the microswimmers.
  • Fig. S14. Unstimulated splenocytes interacting with microswimmers.
  • Fig. S15. Rolling and rowing types of locomotion of the immunobots.
  • Fig. S16. Cell-powered autonomous motion of immunobots.
  • Table S1. Dimensions of the microswimmers.
  • Table S2. Forty-eight–hour interaction analysis of the non–serum-treated microswimmers with macrophages.
  • Table S3. Twenty-four–hour interaction analysis of the serum-treated microswimmers with macrophages.
  • Table S4. Dimensions of the grooves with respect to the length and turn number of the helical microswimmers.
  • Table S5. The overall number of microswimmers analyzed for interaction with splenocytes and percent internalization of the microswimmers after 96 hours of incubation.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S5

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Magnetic actuation of the synthetic microswimmers in 1× PBS and whole mouse blood.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Internalization of the adherent and free-floating microswimmers by macrophages.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Magnetic actuation of the immunobots.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Autonomous crawling of the immunobots and their trajectories.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Nonspecific adhesion of the synthetic microswimmers to the surrounding cells (semiadherent nonmagnetic macrophages), blocking their swimming locomotion.

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