Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. CVs of an MDB-CNT/rGO/h-Ni electrode.
  • Fig. S2. Characterization of the surface area of the BFC anodes.
  • Fig. S3. Role of MDB in the preparation of the Pt/CNT BFC cathodes.
  • Fig. S4. Characterization of the Pt/CNT and the Pt/MDB-CNT cathodes.
  • Fig. S5. Characterization of the bulk Pt, Pt/MDB-CNT, and Pt alloy/MDB-CNT cathodes.
  • Fig. S6. LSV characterization of the bioanode and the cathodes in lactate solutions.
  • Fig. S7. Characterization of the stability of the Pt/MDB-CNT cathode.
  • Fig. S8. Characterization of the Pt-Co alloy nanoparticles.
  • Fig. S9. Schematic diagram of the energy-harvesting circuit.
  • Fig. S10. Schematic illustration and component list of the electronic system of the PPES.
  • Fig. S11. Fabrication process of the electrochemical patch of the PPES.
  • Fig. S12. Exploded view of the multilayered electronic patch.
  • Fig. S13. Fabrication process of the flexible electronic patch of the PPES.
  • Fig. S14. Assembly and encapsulation of the PPES.
  • Fig. S15. Mechanical deformation study of the BFC patch.
  • Fig. S16. Mechanical deformation study of the electronic patch.
  • Fig. S17. Power consumption breakdown of the PPES.
  • Fig. S18. Continuous operation of the PPES with small capacitors in 5 to 20 mM lactate.
  • Fig. S19. Long-term stability of the BFCs to charge a capacitor.
  • Fig. S20. Selectivity of the sensor arrays.
  • Fig. S21. Interactive study of the urea/NH4+ sensor array.
  • Fig. S22. Interactive study of the glucose/pH sensor array.
  • Fig. S23. Stability of the sensor arrays.
  • Fig. S24. Performance of the sensor arrays under mechanical deformation.
  • Fig. S25. Influence of the temperature on the performance of enzymatic sensors.
  • Fig. S26. Skin-interfaced microfluidic patch in the PPES.
  • Fig. S27. Investigation of the stability, reusability, and biocompability of the PPES.
  • Fig. S28. Operation flow of data transmission processes and human-machine interaction.
  • Fig. S29. Schematic illustration and component list of the strain sensor integrated PPES for human-machine interaction.
  • Text S1. Mechanism of TTF-MDB bimediator in BFC.
  • Table S1. List of BFCs for energy-harvesting in body fluids.
  • References (5155)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Biofuel-powered electronic skin for robotic arm control and cargo handling.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Biofuel-powered electronic skin for prosthesis control.

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