Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Reynolds numbers for natural flyers
  • Section S2. Flight time dependency
  • Section S3. MAV and NAV aerodynamic efficiency: low or high aspect ratio?
  • Section S4. Design principles for a Separated Flow airfoil
  • Section S5. Separated Flow wing working principle, turbulence effects on lift
  • Section S6. Battery capacity measurement
  • Section S7. Wing-propeller interaction for lift production
  • Section S8. Roll control
  • Fig. S1. Lift coefficient versus angle of attack and maximum efficiency scaling with Reynolds number.
  • Fig. S2. Subsystem scaling.
  • Fig. S3. Separated Flow airfoil performance.
  • Fig. S4. The angle of attack influences the reattachment position and not the distance required for laminar to turbulent transition (Re = 40,000 and Tu = 2.5%).
  • Fig. S5. Reattachment position of the separated shear layer.
  • Fig. S6. Velocity profiles around the Separated Flow wing at α = 7°, Re = 40,000 and at two turbulence levels.
  • Fig. S7. Lift increase due to propeller action.
  • Fig. S8. Ailerons characterization.
  • Table S1. Airfoil geometries tested in the wind tunnel.
  • Table S2. The capacity of two different batteries was measured at two different discharge rates.
  • References (4356)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Video of flight.
  • Data S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Reynolds numbers of large insects and small birds.
  • Data S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Propellers efficiency and power.
  • Data S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Motors efficiency and power output.
  • Data S4 (Microsoft Excel format). Lithium polymer batteries–specific energy.
  • Data S5 (.7z format). Data and scripts used to generate figures.

Files in this Data Supplement: