Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Text
  • Fig. S1. Scaffold material properties and mechanical simulation material model.
  • Fig. S2. Index of refraction measurement.
  • Fig. S3. Dimensions of the OL1,3.
  • Fig. S4. μ-CT sample.
  • Fig. S5. COMSOL optical simulation results.
  • Fig. S6. Experimental setup for coupling length measurements.
  • Fig. S7. Experimental setup and results for coupling width measurements.
  • Fig. S8. Setup to take force and position data in Fig. 3.
  • Fig. S9. Other clear impact testing sensor signals.
  • Fig. S10. Curve fit to find nonlinear multiplication factor for Eq. 3.
  • Fig. S11. CAD and images of setup for exteroceptive demo.
  • Fig. S12. Schematic of information flow.
  • Fig. S13. Compression tests of the individual sections in the proprioceptive demo.
  • Fig. S14. Schematic of theoretical length model use cases.
  • Fig. S15. Increase sensitivity with feather.
  • Fig. S16. CAD examples of ways to increase accuracy and resolution.
  • Fig. S17. OL3,15.
  • Fig. S18. Different geometry OL5,11.
  • Fig. S19. Schematic for electronics circuit.
  • Fig. S20. Setup for impact test.
  • Table S1. Proprioceptive sensor circuit gains.
  • Table S2. Linear parameters used in proprioceptive demo to relate signal to force using F = F0 + signal/S1*S2.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S7
  • Reference (47)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). High-speed impact.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Exteroception.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Proprioception with FEA model.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Proprioception with experimental model.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). OL3_15.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Multiple deformation sensing in a block.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). FEA simulation.

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