Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Text
  • Fig. S1. Rheological properties of ferromagnetic composite inks.
  • Fig. S2. Characterizations of silica-coated magnetic particles.
  • Fig. S3. Experimental demonstration of active steering and navigating capabilities with a TPU-based prototype.
  • Fig. S4. Experimental setups and dimensions for the demonstrations of active steering and navigating capabilities of ferromagnetic soft continuum robots based on magnetic actuation.
  • Fig. S5. Magnetic actuation and steering mechanism based on a cylindrical permanent magnet for experimental demonstrations of the proposed ferromagnetic soft continuum robots.
  • Fig. S6. Influence of spatial gradients of the actuating magnetic field on the actuation and steering of the ferromagnetic soft continuum robot.
  • Fig. S7. Dimensions and details of the cerebrovascular phantom model used for the experimental demonstration of the active steering and navigating capabilities of the proposed ferromagnetic soft continuum robot.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S8
  • References (55, 56)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of the ferromagnetic soft continuum robot actively steering and selectively navigating through a set of rings based on magnetic actuation.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of the ferromagnetic soft continuum robot based on TPU + NdFeB (30 volume %) composite in the same experimental setup presented in movie S1.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of the ferromagnetic soft continuum robot navigating through a highly nonlinear path formed by a set of tightly spaced multiple rings, based on multiple modes and degrees of deflection upon magnetic actuation.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of the ferromagnetic soft continuum robot with hydrogel skin (the same prototype presented in movie S3) navigating through a 3D cerebrovascular phantom (the circle of Willis model with multiple aneurysms).
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Comparison of the navigating performance of the ferromagnetic soft continuum robot with (left) and without (right) hydrogel skin as a lubricating layer on the robots’ surface in the same experimental setup presented in movie S4.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Comparison of the navigating performance of the ferromagnetic soft continuum robot with hydrogel skin (left) and a commercial hydrophilic guidewire with a preshaped tip (right).
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of the capability of steerable laser delivery with the ferromagnetic soft continuum robot with a concentric optical fiber incorporated as a functional core.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of steerable laser delivery in the carotid artery of the vascular phantom model presented in movie S4.

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