Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Section S1. General
  • Section S2. Fabrication of materials
  • Section S3. Characterization of materials
  • Section S4. Characterization of oscillation
  • Section S5. Theory and simulations
  • Fig. S1. UV-visible absorption spectrum of AuNPs.
  • Fig. S2. The schematic of the measurement of hydrogel deswelling/swelling ratio and rate.
  • Fig. S3. Deswelling/swelling kinetics of oscillating hydrogel and tracking hydrogel.
  • Fig. S4. Scanning electron microscope images of hydrogels.
  • Fig. S5. The stress-strain curves of hydrogels with different cross-linking densities.
  • Fig. S6. Photo-tracking versus photo-oscillation.
  • Fig. S7. Comparisons of the bending and unbending kinetics of oscillating pillar and tracking pillar.
  • Fig. S8. Switch from tracking to oscillation by tuning light power.
  • Fig. S9. Fishhook-shaped oscillator and position independency.
  • Fig. S10. Schematic of lower-biased (case I), upper-biased (case II), and symmetric flapping (case III).
  • Fig. S11. Range of operation input correlated to the dimension and the photothermal properties.
  • Fig. S12. Realization of oscillation under ambient white light.
  • Fig. S13. The hydrogel oscillator floating on the surface of water in the container.
  • Fig. S14. Maneuverability of the OsciBot.
  • Table S1. Summary of effect of cross-linking density on materials properties and oscillation performance.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S11
  • References (3840)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Hydrogel-based light-driven oscillator.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Comparison of light-induced tracking and oscillation.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Fishhook-shaped hydrogel oscillator.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Position independency.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Realization of omnidirectional oscillation.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Oscillation frequency as a function of geometry.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Initialization: From tracking to oscillation.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Long-term stability of the oscillation.
  • Movie S9 (.mp4 format). OsciBot: Continuous swimming.
  • Movie S10 (.mp4 format). OsciBot: Controllable motion.
  • Movie S11 (.mp4 format). Oscillation under ambient white light.

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