Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Actuation mechanism of PVDF film and curved unimorph structure
  • Section S2. Qualitative analysis of the locomotion mechanism
  • Section S3. Simplified dynamic model for the robot’s locomotion
  • Section S4. Resonant frequency evaluation
  • Section S5. COT calculation
  • Fig. S1. Actuating mechanism of PVDF film and curved unimorph structure.
  • Fig. S2. Locomotion performances inside a tube.
  • Fig. S3. Conceptual image of the free body diagram: A robot at a both-touching posture.
  • Fig. S4. Velocity and force analysis for front-leg touchdown.
  • Fig. S5. System configurations of the simplified dynamic model.
  • Fig. S6. Gait statistics near fast speed.
  • Fig. S7. The relationship between robot length and resonant frequency for FEM simulation results under different boundary conditions compared with that of experimental results.
  • Fig. S8. Dynamic tests when the robot is clamped at one end.
  • Fig. S9. Locomotion of a robot under low driving voltage.
  • Fig. S10. Measurement of electrical parameters.
  • Fig. S11. COT of select robots (circles) and insects (squares) plotted against their body masses.
  • Fig. S12. Performance of a 3 cm–by–1.5 cm prototype robot after applying and removing different loads.
  • Fig. S13. Fabrication processes of a prototype robot with the turning ability.
  • Fig. S14. Direction control.
  • Fig. S15. Main fabrication and assembly processes of a prototype robot.
  • Table S1. Material parameters.
  • Table S2. Data of 25 combinations of λ/L and β/π as well as their normalized speeds.
  • Table S3. Data of relative speed versus mass of some animals as well as soft robots and actuators.
  • References (6487)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Locomotion observation of prototype robot running at the fastest speed.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Posture and position observation of prototype robot.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Locomotion inside tube with different driving frequencies.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Locomotion observation of prototype robot running at slower speeds.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Locomotion of the simplified dynamic model in MATLAB simulation.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Locomotion of prototype robot under low driving voltage.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Robustness, climbing, and carrying loads.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Galloping-like gaits of two-legged robot.
  • Movie S9 (.mp4 format). Comparison of locomotion of one-legged robot and two-legged robot.
  • Movie S10 (.mp4 format). Robot with two separate electrical domains for turning.

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