Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Text S1. Manual material feeding for multilayer structures.
  • Text S2. TWC analysis for magnetic swimmers.
  • Text S3. Time required for fabricating a four-arm magnetic gripper.
  • Text S4. Velocity of multi-legged paddle-crawling robot.
  • Text S5. Turning motion of multi-legged paddle-crawling robot.
  • Text S6. Magnetic dipole array model for calculating the distribution of magnetic flux.
  • Text S7. Connection of hardware and flow of control signals.
  • Text S8. Geometrical resolution of the custom UV lithography system.
  • Text S9. Measurement of Young’s modulus of the material.
  • Text S10. Magnitude of the magnetization developed by reorienting premagnetized particles.
  • Fig. S1. Sequence diagram for patterning magnetization in a dual-layer structure.
  • Fig. S2. Magnetization and dimensions of the devices fabricated.
  • Fig. S3. TWC analysis of the deformation of type 1 swimmer at different magnetic field angles.
  • Fig. S4. TWC analysis of the deformation of type 2 swimmer at different magnetic field angles.
  • Fig. S5. TWC analysis of the deformation of type 3 swimmer at different magnetic field angles.
  • Fig. S6. Velocity of the multi-legged robot crawling in silicone oil under a 1-Hz rotating magnetic field.
  • Fig. S7. Velocity of the multi-legged robot swimming (drag-based paddling) at the interface of water and silicone oil under a 2-Hz rotating magnetic field.
  • Fig. S8. Schematic representation of steering motion of the multi-legged paddle-crawling robot.
  • Fig. S9. Schematic representation of the magnetic dipole array model.
  • Fig. S10. Image of the physical apparatus.
  • Fig. S11. Schematic representation of signal flow and hardware control.
  • Fig. S12. Intensity profile of squares generated at the object plane.
  • Fig. S13. Intensity profile of other shapes generated at the object plane.
  • Fig. S14. Measurement of the stiffness of the material using a microforce sensor.
  • Fig. S15. Electromagnetic coil system used for actuation.
  • Fig. S16. Distribution of magnetic flux observed at the near surface of the samples cured in different field strength.
  • Table S1. Dimension, magnetization, and parameters obtained from TWC analysis.
  • Table S2. Coefficient of first-order terms of the Fourier series in TWC analysis.
  • Table S3. Dimensions of the sample used in Young’s modulus measurement.
  • Legend for movie S1

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Fabrication procedure and demonstration of the microrobots.

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