Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Additional Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Fig. S1. Schematics of the generation seed preparation.
  • Fig. S2. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ligated templates with primers.
  • Fig. S3. Cross-sections of the DASH device.
  • Fig. S4. Overall device layout of the DASH device.
  • Fig. S5. Schemes for the “letter D” main chamber design.
  • Fig. S6. Standard structure elements of the DASH patterns.
  • Fig. S7. Experimental setup of the DASH generation.
  • Fig. S8. Overall process of DASH data analysis software.
  • Fig. S9. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of original double-stranded plasmid and single-stranded template after nicking enzyme and exonuclease treatment.
  • Fig. S10. Redistribution of long DNA without simultaneous synthesis.
  • Fig. S11. Redistribution of generation mix after 2.5-hours synthesis reaction, stopped with Proteinase K.
  • Fig. S12. SEM image used for the spherical structure analysis.
  • Fig. S13. CFD simulation of velocity mapping inside a three-chamber device.
  • Fig. S14. CFD simulation of vorticity mapping inside a three-chamber device.
  • Fig. S15. Sample signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data used for the generation starting time analysis.
  • Fig. S16. A relation between characteristic flow velocity and vorticity obtained by CFD simulation.
  • Fig. S17. A relation between vorticity and inverse of frame number of DASH generation starting time.
  • Fig. S18. Flow velocity heat map of two devices with different pillar shapes.
  • Fig. S19. Flow vorticity heat map of two devices with different pillar shapes.
  • Fig. S20. Pillar shape comparison of the DASH pattern generation.
  • Fig. S21. Intensity plot from three sample points during generation and degeneration of the DASH patterns.
  • Fig. S22. Location of three sample points used in fig. S21.
  • Fig. S23. Average intensity from the rectangle area (x = 700 to 740 px, y = 120 to 190 px) during generation and degeneration of the DASH patterns.
  • Fig. S24. CFD simulation (particle trace) during generation and degeneration processes.
  • Fig. S25. Repeated generation and degeneration of the DASH patterns at the static location.
  • Fig. S26. Intensity plot from three sample points during repeated generation and degeneration of the DASH patterns at the static location.
  • Fig. S27. Location of three sample points used in fig. S26.
  • Fig. S28. Average intensity plot from rectangular region (x = 820 to 851 px, y = 140 to 147 px) during repeated generation and degeneration of the DASH patterns at the static location.
  • Fig. S29. Emergent locomotion behavior (wide track width, device no. 22-3).
  • Fig. S30. Schematics of DNA/RNA detection.
  • Fig. S31. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the generated DASH patterns from target samples.
  • Fig. S32. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the generated DASH patterns from non-target samples.
  • Fig. S33. Average intensity versus SNR of the DASH patterns with positive and non-target samples.
  • Fig. S34. DASH-avidin binding results.
  • Fig. S35. DASH-streptavidin binding results.
  • Fig. S36. DASH-quantum dot (Qdots) attachment result.
  • Fig. S37. DASH-AuNP patterns.
  • Fig. S38. SEM observation of DASH-AuNP patterns.
  • Fig. S39. Avidin–horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity verification using 3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate.
  • Fig. S40. Observation of avidin-HRP activity in the DASH device.
  • Fig. S41. Direct observation of CFPE from the DASH patterns.
  • Fig. S42. DASH device and track design catalog.
  • Tables S1. Sectional height measurement data of DASH devices.
  • Tables S2. Material settings used for CFD simulation.
  • Tables S3. Vorticity at the side of the pillars in a three-chamber device.
  • Tables S4. State transition function of FSA for the generation and degeneration of the DASH patterns at the static location.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S7
  • References (5557)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Generation of the DASH patterns.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Generation of the DASH patterns (confocal laser scanning microscopy).
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Overlay of time-lapse video and CFD simulation.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Sequential generation and degeneration behaviors by DASH.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Repeated generation and degeneration behaviors by DASH.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Locomotion behavior powered by DASH.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Racing behavior powered by DASH.

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