Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

Biohybrid robot powered by an antagonistic pair of skeletal muscle tissues

Yuya Morimoto, Hiroaki Onoe, Shoji Takeuchi*

*Corresponding author. Email: takeuchi{at}

Published 30 May 2018, Sci. Robot. 3, eaat4440 (2018)
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aat4440

This PDF file includes:

  • Section S1. Relationship between the motions of our biohybrid robot and the contractile properties of the skeletal muscle tissues
  • Fig. S1. Fabrication process of our biohybrid robot.
  • Fig. S2. Detailed process for stacking the myoblast-laden hydrogel sheets.
  • Fig. S3. Formation of skeletal muscle tissue on our biohybrid robot.
  • Fig. S4. Observation of our biohybrid robot.
  • Fig. S5. Contractile properties of the striped patterned skeletal muscle tissues.
  • Fig. S6. Confocal image of a skeletal muscle tissue immunostained with α-actinin, myogenin, and the cell nucleus.
  • Fig. S7. Schematic illustration for comparison of a myoblast-laden hydrogel block and a stack of myoblast-laden hydrogel sheets.
  • Fig. S8. Selective contractions of the skeletal muscle tissue in the biohybrid robot.
  • Fig. S9. Variation with time of the motions of our biohybrid robot, a conventional biohybrid robot, and a free-standing single skeletal muscle tissue.
  • Fig. S10. Calculated balance between the flexor muscle and extensor muscle.

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Bidirectional motions of our biohybrid robot.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Motions of our biohybrid robot under applied electrical pulses (50 Hz, 2 ms) with different magnitudes of the electrical field.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Pick-and-place operation by a single biohybrid robot.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Pick-up operation achieved by two biohybrid robots.

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