Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

Light-stimulated actuators based on nickel hydroxide-oxyhydroxide

K. W. Kwan, S. J. Li, N. Y. Hau, Wen-Di Li, S. P. Feng, Alfonso H. W. Ngan*

*Corresponding author. Email: hwngan{at}hku.hk

Published 30 May 2018, Sci. Robot. 3, eaat4051 (2018)
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aat4051

This PDF file includes:

  • Fig. S1. Schematic diagrams of the fabrication of the actuators.
  • Fig. S2. Cyclic voltammogram of the actuator under 1 M NaOH.
  • Fig. S3. Electrochemical actuation under 1 M NaOH.
  • Fig. S4. SEM images of the top view of an actuator.
  • Fig. S5. EDS mapping of the cross section of an actuator.
  • Fig. S6. SAED of oxidized and reduced Ni(OH)2-NiOOH.
  • Fig. S7. GIXRD spectrum of oxidized and reduced Ni(OH)2-NiOOH.
  • Fig. S8. Experimental setup for the light-induced actuation tests.
  • Fig. S9. Light absorption spectra measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy.
  • Fig. S10. Comparison of light-induced actuation of actuators with Ni and Ni-Au substrate under Vis light.
  • Fig. S11. Actuation tests under Vis light at narrowband wavelengths.
  • Fig. S12. Schematic diagram of the QCM cell.
  • Fig. S13. Shape control of the actuator by redox reactions under the same RH.
  • Fig. S14. Intrinsic actuating work density of the Ni(OH)2-NiOOH layer plotted against the Vis light intensity.
  • Fig. S15. Long-term stability test of the intrinsic actuating strain.
  • Fig. S16. Schematic diagram of the UTM tensile tester for the actuating force measurement under periodic Vis light illumination.
  • Fig. S17. Vertical displacement of the weight-lifting actuation plotted against the change in time after light on/off.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S13

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mov file). Electrochemical actuation of an actuator.
  • Movie S2 (.mov file). Light-actuation of an actuator by UV, Vis, and NIR light.
  • Movie S3 (.mov file). A demonstration of the humidity sensitivity of an actuator.
  • Movie S4 (.mov file). A demonstration of the Joule heating–induced actuation of an actuator.
  • Movie S5 (.mov file). Light-actuation of an actuator induced by Vis light at 5 to 50 mW/cm2.
  • Movie S6 (.mov file). Light-actuation of an actuator induced by Vis light at 100 mW/cm2 with slow motion.
  • Movie S7 (.mov file). Cyclic actuation test of an actuator for 5000 cycles.
  • Movie S8 (.mov file). A demonstration of a hinged actuator capable of self-folding and weight lifting under Vis light.
  • Movie S9 (.mov file). A demonstration of the sunlight-induced actuation of an actuator.
  • Movie S10 (.mov file). A demonstration of a mimicked sensitive plant with rapid leaf movement.
  • Movie S11 (.mov file). A demonstration of mimicked hairs that stand and fall under light stimulation.
  • Movie S12 (.mov file). A demonstration of a walking bot under a horizontal flashing Vis light source.
  • Movie S13 (.mov file). A demonstration of the shadowing effect on a walking bot under a horizontal flashing Vis light source.

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