Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

A biologically inspired, flapping-wing, hybrid aerial-aquatic microrobot

Yufeng Chen,* Hongqiang Wang, E. Farrell Helbling, Noah T. Jafferis, Raphael T. Zufferey, Aaron Ong, Kevin Ma, Nicholas Gravish, Pakpong Chirarattananon, Mirko Kovac, Robert J. Wood*

*Corresponding author. Email: rjwood{at} (R.J.W.); yufengchen{at} (Y.C.)

Published 25 October 2017, Sci. Robot. 2, eaao5619 (2017)
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aao5619

This PDF file includes:

  • Text S1. Electrolytic plate geometry and efficiency.
  • Text S2. Effect of micro-openings on gas capture.
  • Text S3. Robot stability near the water surface.
  • Text S4. Effect of micro-openings on takeoff.
  • Text S5. Derivation of dynamical model.
  • Text S6. Robot tracking.
  • Text S7. Simplified model of robot passive upright stability.
  • Fig. S1. Material selection of sparker and electrolytic plates, and plate geometry influence on water resistance during electrolysis.
  • Fig. S2. Swimming demonstration of the new robot design.
  • Fig. S3. Robot water entry from different orientations.
  • Fig. S4. Surface tension influence on height of the gas collection chamber.
  • Fig. S5. Robot stability near the water surface.
  • Fig. S6. Influence of micro-openings on takeoff speed.
  • Fig. S7. Influence of micro-openings on ignition pressure and takeoff speed.
  • Fig. S8. Comparison of flapping kinematics before and after impulsive takeoff.
  • Fig. S9. Robot liftoff demonstration before and after impulsive takeoff.
  • Fig. S10. Experimental setup.
  • Fig. S11. Dynamical model and motion-tracking method.
  • Fig. S12. Robot stability during freefall and swimming.
  • Table S1. Properties of robot components.
  • Table S2. Model parameter values.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S9
  • References (3235)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of robot aerial hover.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of robot air-water transition.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of robot swimming and emergence of robot wing from the water surface.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Demonstration of robot impulsive takeoff and landing.
  • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Comparison of robot underwater stability with different flapping frequencies.
  • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Comparison between robot swimming experiment and simulation.
  • Movie S7 (.mp4 format). Measurement of surface tension force on a robot during water-to-air transition.
  • Movie S8 (.mp4 format). Comparison of robot takeoff with or without microopenings on gas collection chamber.
  • Movie S9 (.mp4 format). Detonation pressure measurement and robot takeoff.

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