Science Robotics

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Material for:

Toward site-specific and self-sufficient robotic fabrication on architectural scales

Steven J. Keating, Julian C. Leland, Levi Cai, Neri Oxman*

*Corresponding author. Email: neri{at}

Published 26 April 2017, Sci. Robot. 2, eaam8986 (2017)
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aam8986

This PDF file includes:

  • Text S1. ISO 9283-1998 pose repeatability characterization.
  • Text S2. ISO 4287 surface roughness characterization.
  • Text S3. Preliminary financial analysis of PiP construction.
  • Text S4. Notes on estimations in construction robots comparison table.
  • Table S1. ISO 4287 surface topography summary data.
  • Fig. S1. Laser compensation enabling maintenance of constant aboveground height.
  • Fig. S2. KUKA endpoint position during programmed oscillatory movement with laser sensor compensation vs. without laser compensation.
  • Fig. S3. Electrohydraulic drivetrain.
  • Fig. S4. Solid PV panels.
  • Fig. S5. PiP mold filled with conventional concrete.
  • Fig. S6. Foam deposition head for PiP fabrication.
  • Fig. S7. Foam deposition head detail.
  • Fig. S8. Empirical determination of optimal foam extrusion parameters.
  • Fig. S9. Doubly curved geometries fabricated with PiP process.
  • Fig. S10. Automated rebar tie inserter prototype.
  • Fig. S11. Adhesion failure caused by excessive moisture on the printed surface from the dew condensation that occurred in the morning during printing.
  • Fig. S12. KUKA robot arm with combined milling/PiP fabrication end effector.
  • Fig. S13. Milled spray polyurethane foam mold used to produce concrete casting shown in Fig. 4F.
  • Fig. S14. Range of color variation in spray polyurethane foam insulation.
  • Fig. S15. Completed PiP dome.
  • Fig. S16. The PiP dome was able to support human weight, even without any structural material (such as concrete) cast inside the formwork.
  • Fig. S17. Fabrication of horizontally printed overhang feature.
  • Fig. S18. Fabrication using direct welding deposition technique.
  • Fig. S19. Concept computer renderings of future applications for DCP systems.
  • Fig. S20. Excavation tests with the DCP demonstrating both subtractive site preparation and local material gathering.
  • Fig. S21. A rollable photovoltaic panel was used for testing with the DCP to explore deployable large solar arrays for power self-sufficiency.
  • Fig. S22. Radiation scanning using a Geiger counter mounted to the DCP to gather volumetric data around three radioactive sources.
  • Fig. S23. Preliminary fabrication explorations with electrosintered powdered glass, thermally deposited ice structures, and compressed earth forms.
  • Fig. S24. Balluff magnetostrictive sensors.
  • Fig. S25. YUMO rotary encoder.
  • Fig. S26. Sensor board that mounts at the end of the KUKA robotic arm.
  • Fig. S27. DCP sensor architecture diagram.
  • Fig. S28. HomePrint software interface.
  • Fig. S29. DCP control architecture diagram.
  • Fig. S30. Leica retroreflector mounted to the KUKA robotic arm on the DCP.
  • Fig. S31. A selection of various DCP end effectors.
  • Fig. S32. Thermoplastic fabrication end-effector and 3D printed structure made from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS).
  • Legend for movie S1
  • References (4366)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mov format). Short video overview of the DCP.

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