Research ArticleBIOMIMETICS

Ladybird beetle–inspired compliant origami

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Science Robotics  15 Apr 2020:
Vol. 5, Issue 41, eaaz6262
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aaz6262
  • Fig. 1 Ladybird beetle–inspired compliant origami.

    (A) Ladybird beetle’s wing vein and ladybird beetle–inspired compliant origami. The compliant origami is composed of compliant facets with a cross-sectional curvature. (B) Self-locking behavior of the compliant origami (red) and energy storage of the compliant origami (blue). (C) Fabrication of the compliant origami. Predesigned molds are applied. (D) Folding moment according to the folding angle. The compliant origami has an anisotropic moment profile. Two peak folding moments render the self-locking. (E) Stored energy according to the folding angle. This energy storage renders self-deployment of the compliant origami. The lines in (B), (D), and (E) represent the mean values, and the shaded regions represent ±1 SD.

  • Fig. 2 Performance study of the compliant origami.

    (A) Design parameters (radius of curvature r, arch length w, and facet thickness t) of the compliant origami. The analytical model assumes the curved facet as four rigid plates and three torsion springs. (B) (Left) Mass and strain of the compliant origami depending on r (blue denotes strain and black denotes mass). The (middle) locking moment and (right) energy storage of the compliant origami depending on r (blue denotes opposite-sense folding and red denotes equal-sense folding). (C) Mass and strain of the compliant origami depending on w. The locking moment and energy storage of the compliant origami depending on w. (D) Mass and strain of the compliant origami depending on t. The locking moment and energy storage of the compliant origami depending on t. Whiskers are extended to 1.5 times of interquartile range (IQR) from the edge of the box; IQR is the difference between upper and lower quartile. Solid circles indicate outliers that are beyond the whiskers.

  • Fig. 3 Deployable glider module.

    (A) The deployable glider module can be folded into one-eighth of its deployed area. (B) The glider module was integrated with a jumping mechanism, and the jump-gliding robot was tested outdoors. (C) Kinematic design of the wing folding and unfolding mechanism. Two compliant origami frames were strategically arranged to enlarge the load-bearing ability. (D) Moment required to transform the wing in the folded state (blue) and locking moment that the wing can sustain (red). The solid lines represent the mean values, and the shaded regions represent ±1 SD. (E) Sequence of the deployment. The glider can deploy within 466 ms by using the stored energy in the compliant origami.

  • Fig. 4 Origami-based jumping mechanism.

    (A) Flea-inspired jumping mechanisms. The left one contains compliant origami, and the right one is composed of conventional origami linkages. (B) Unique shape of the origami facet. Each side of the jumper consists of compliant origami joints; the top and bottom sides consist of a conventional origami joint. (C) Fabrication of the jumping mechanism based on compliant origami. On the planar drawing, red indicates curved fold lines and blue indicates straight fold lines. An origami structure with combined joints is fabricated by predesigned molds in a single SCM process. (D) Energy storage of the jumper by compliant origami (red) and linear spring (blue). (E) Jumping performance of two origami-based jumping mechanisms. The left jumper with compliant origami jumps 42 cm, and right jumper without compliant origami jumps 18 cm.

  • Movie 1. Summary of labybird beetle–inspired compliant origami and its applications.

Supplementary Materials

  • robotics.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/41/eaaz6262/DC1

    Note S1. Differences between conventional origami and compliant origami.

    Note S2. Analytical model for the compliant origami.

    Note S3. Deployment time and average deployment speed of the compliant origami.

    Note S4. Scale effect of the compliant origami.

    Note S5. Wing folding and unfolding mechanism of the deployable glider module.

    Note S6. Crawl-gliding locomotion.

    Note S7. Deployable flapping mechanism based on the ladybird beetle–inspired compliant origami.

    Note S8. Flea-inspired jumping mechanism and torque reversal catapult mechanism.

    Note S9. Miura-ori pattern with compliant origami design.

    Fig. S1. Possible materials for the fold line of the conventional origami and for the facet of the compliant origami.

    Fig. S2. Self-locking and self-deployment of the compliant origami.

    Fig. S3. Analytical model for the compliant origami.

    Fig. S4. Deployment time and average deployment speed of the compliant origami.

    Fig. S5. Scale effect of the compliant origami.

    Fig. S6. Wing folding and unfolding mechanism of the deployable glider module.

    Fig. S7. Flea-inspired jumping mechanism and torque reversal catapult mechanism.

    Fig. S8. Miura-ori pattern with compliant origami design.

    Fig. S9. Experimental setups.

    Table S1. Variables for the compliant origami.

    Table S2. Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for the analytical model.

    Movie S1. Ladybird beetle–inspired compliant origami.

    Movie S2. Deployable glider module for jump gliding.

    Movie S3. Deployable glider module for crawl gliding.

    Movie S4. Deployable flapping mechanism.

    Movie S5. Origami-based jumping mechanism.

    Movie S6. Miura-ori pattern with compliant origami design.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Note S1. Differences between conventional origami and compliant origami.
    • Note S2. Analytical model for the compliant origami.
    • Note S3. Deployment time and average deployment speed of the compliant origami.
    • Note S4. Scale effect of the compliant origami.
    • Note S5. Wing folding and unfolding mechanism of the deployable glider module.
    • Note S6. Crawl-gliding locomotion.
    • Note S7. Deployable flapping mechanism based on the ladybird beetle–inspired compliant origami.
    • Note S8. Flea-inspired jumping mechanism and torque reversal catapult mechanism.
    • Note S9. Miura-ori pattern with compliant origami design.
    • Fig. S1. Possible materials for the fold line of the conventional origami and for the facet of the compliant origami.
    • Fig. S2. Self-locking and self-deployment of the compliant origami.
    • Fig. S3. Analytical model for the compliant origami.
    • Fig. S4. Deployment time and average deployment speed of the compliant origami.
    • Fig. S5. Scale effect of the compliant origami.
    • Fig. S6. Wing folding and unfolding mechanism of the deployable glider module.
    • Fig. S7. Flea-inspired jumping mechanism and torque reversal catapult mechanism.
    • Fig. S8. Miura-ori pattern with compliant origami design.
    • Fig. S9. Experimental setups.
    • Table S1. Variables for the compliant origami.
    • Table S2. Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for the analytical model.

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Ladybird beetle–inspired compliant origami.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Deployable glider module for jump gliding.
    • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Deployable glider module for crawl gliding.
    • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Deployable flapping mechanism.
    • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Origami-based jumping mechanism.
    • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). Miura-ori pattern with compliant origami design.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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