21 August 2019
Vol 4, Issue 33

About The Cover

Cover image expansion

ONLINE COVER Soft Robotics Across Scales. Extensive research, from materials engineering to whole systems, is expanding the boundaries of robotics to create stretchy, flexible, touch-feedback electronics; advanced microelectromechanical systems; and shape-morphing and self-propelling devices. Umrao et al. designed Ti3C2Tx electrodes ionically cross-linked with PEDOT:PSS for high-performance air-working ionic soft actuators. The resulting actuators tolerated high bending strains, responded rapidly to electric signals, and remained durable after hours of use. They were used as artificial muscles in kinetic structures, such as this butterfly (mass of 310 grams). [CREDIT: Umrao et al./Science Robotics]