Research ArticleCOLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR

An integrated system for perception-driven autonomy with modular robots

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Science Robotics  31 Oct 2018:
Vol. 3, Issue 23, eaat4983
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aat4983
  • Fig. 1 Environments and tasks for demonstrations.

    (A) Diagram of demonstration I environment. (B) Map of environment 1 built by visual SLAM. (C) Setups and task descriptions.

  • Fig. 2 Demonstrations I, II, and III.

    (A) Phases of demonstration I: environment (top left), exploration of environment (top middle), reconfiguration (top right), retrieving pink object (bottom left), delivering an object (bottom middle), and retrieving green object (bottom right). (B) (Top) Demonstration II: Reconfiguring to climb stairs (left) and successful circuit delivery (right). (Bottom) Demonstration III: Reconfiguring to place stamp (left) and successful stamp placement (right).

  • Fig. 3 System overview flowchart.

  • Fig. 4 SMORES-EP module and sensor module.

    (A) SMORES-EP module. (B) Sensor module with labeled components. UP board and battery are inside the body.

  • Fig. 5 Environment characterization.

    (A) Free. (B) Tunnel. (C) High. (D) Stairs. (E) An example of a tunnel environment characterization. Yellow grid cells are occupied; light blue cells are unreachable resulting from bloating obstacles.

  • Fig. 6 Module movement during reconfiguration.

    (Left) Initial configuration (Car). (Middle) Module movement, using AprilTags for localization. (Right) Final configuration (Proboscis).

  • Fig. 7 A task specification with the synthesized controller.

    (A) Specification for dropping an object in the mailbox. (B) Synthesized controller. A proposition with an exclamation point has a value of false and true otherwise.

  • Table 1 Reasons for demonstration failure.

    Failure reasonNumber of timesPercentage (%)
    Hardware issues1041.7
    Navigation failure312.5
    Perception-related errors625
    Network issues14.2
    Human error416.7
  • Table 2 A library of robot behaviors.

    Behavior propertiesEnvironment types
    Car
    PickUpFree
    DropFree
    DriveFree
    Proboscis
    PickUpTunnel or free
    DropTunnel or free
    HighReachHigh
    Scorpion
    DriveFree
    Snake
    ClimbUpStairs
    ClimbDownStairs
    DropStairs or free

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Video of demonstrations I, II, and III.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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