Research ArticleMANUFACTURING

Rotorigami: A rotary origami protective system for robotic rotorcraft

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Science Robotics  26 Sep 2018:
Vol. 3, Issue 22, eaah5228
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aah5228
  • Fig. 1 Conceptual analysis, design, and development of Rotorigami for quadcopters.

    (A to D) Graphical representations of four mechanical protection systems: (A) fixed individual propeller protector, (B) rotary individual propeller protector, (C) fixed universal protector, and (D) rotary universal protector. (E) Rotary universal protector with origami cushion. (F) Laser-cut pattern and its detailed view before and after folding along its perforated crease lines. (G) A miniature quadcopter equipped with Rotorigami (Rotary Origami Protective System) in a plan view and (H) in flight.

  • Fig. 2 Concept selection for a circular variation of the Miura-ori and its folding transformation.

    (A) Family tree displaying the symmetric descendants of the Miura fold pattern. (B) Three states in the radial transformation of a cyclic variation of the Miura-ori.

  • Fig. 3 Geometric modeling and structural design optimization of the cyclic Miura-ori.

    (A) Half of a typical cyclic descendant of the Miura fold pattern and its geometric parameters: n, number of radial segments (s1 to sn); α, pattern angle; r, inner radius; m, number of concentric layers (l1 to lm); w̅ = we/wu, normalized width of external facets, where we is the external facets width and wu is the unchanged facets width for the pattern sequence. Mountain and valley folds are represented by solid and dashed lines, respectively. (B) A ring-shaped solid (mathematically speaking, a cylindrical annulus) fitting around an example model. (C) Sixteen origami rings and output data from quasi-static FEA simulations on models with varying parameters α and n, whereas = 1. As the number of radial segments on the pattern is increased, so is the stiffness of the structure. However, this also has the effect of shortening the time during which the structure is stable under compression before it slips out of plane. (D) Reaction force versus displacement curve for the selected design (illustrated on the left part of the figure) and its gradient, which is a measure of the stiffness of the structure. The simulation setup is depicted on the bottom part of the panel. (E) Front and side views of the FEA simulation for the compression of the selected structure.

  • Fig. 4 Force and angular speed profiles in the normal collision (contact angle, 90°) at 1.2 m/s for the naked and origami-protected configurations on the rough and smooth surfaces.

    The design configuration and collision conditions related to each impact scenario are illustrated by icons above each graph. The shaded areas represent the range of data (from five trials) corresponding to each collision. (A) Rough surface with fixed protector. (B) Rough surface with rotary protector. (C) Smooth surface with fixed protector. (D) Smooth surface with rotary protector.

  • Fig. 5 Force and angular speed profiles at a contact angle of 30° and initial speed 1.2 m/s for fixed and rotary configurations on rough and smooth surfaces.

    The design configuration and collision conditions related to each impact scenario are illustrated by icons above each graph. The shaded areas represent the range of data (from five trials) corresponding to each collision. (A) Rough surface with naked protector. (B) Rough surface with origami protector. (C) Smooth surface with naked protector. (D) Smooth surface with origami protector.

  • Fig. 6 Analysis of experimental results.

    (A) Snapshots from high-speed camera videos for an oblique collision with a rough surface at a contact angle of 30° for the origami-protected system in the rotary configuration. Although the protector axes (red) rotate significantly upon impact to the surface, the orientation of the vehicle body axes remains almost invariant. (B) Summary of all results (values averaged between rough and smooth surfaces) demonstrating that the Rotary-Origami (Rotorigami) configuration is the most advantageous design configuration in terms of the overall impact resilience quality. (C to E) A series of conceptual designs for origami-protected aerial robots.

Supplementary Materials

  • robotics.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/22/eaah5228/DC1

    Text

    Fig. S1. Estimation of the inner diameter of a fully folded cyclic Miura-ori ring.

    Fig. S2. Finite elements simulations setup.

    Fig. S3. Top view of a model displaying the angles between successive external vertices.

    Fig. S4. Stiffness of each model in the parametric matrix.

    Fig. S5. Energy absorbed by each model in the parametric matrix.

    Fig. S6. Ratio of height to width of each model in the parametric matrix.

    Fig. S7. Mass of each model in the parametric matrix.

    Fig. S8. Specific energy for each model in the parametric matrix.

    Fig. S9. Peak reaction force for each model in the parametric matrix.

    Fig. S10. Effect of the width of the most external facets (parameter E).

    Fig. S11. Force and angular speed profiles at a contact angle of 60° for naked and origami-protected configuration on rough and smooth surfaces.

    Fig. S12. Force and angular speed profiles at a contact angle of 30° for naked and origami-protected configuration on rough and smooth surfaces.

    Fig. S13. Force and angular speed profiles at a contact angle of 60° for fixed and rotary configuration on rough and smooth surfaces.

    Fig. S14. Force and angular speed profiles at a contact angle of 90° for fixed and rotary configuration on rough and smooth surfaces.

    Fig. S15. Mechanical and electronic setup of the collision experiments.

    Fig. S16. Manufacturing process of the Rotorigami.

    Table S1. Summary of experimental results.

    Table S2. Control registers for the IMU.

    Movie S1. Oblique collision to a rough surface at a contact angle of 30° for the origami-protected and naked systems in the fixed and rotary configurations at 1.2 m/s (0.03×).

    Movie S2. Oblique collision to a rough surface at a contact angle of 60° for the origami-protected and naked systems in the fixed and rotary configurations at 1.2 m/s (0.03×).

    Movie S3. Normal collision to a rough surface for the origami-protected and naked systems in the fixed and rotary configurations at 1.2 m/s (0.03×).

    Movie S4. Normal collision to a rough surface for the origami-protected system in the fixed and rotary configurations at 2 m/s (0.03×) and collisions of the aerial vehicle in the Rotorigami configuration with different obstacles during flight demonstrations.

    Reference (103)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Text
    • Fig. S1. Estimation of the inner diameter of a fully folded cyclic Miura-ori ring.
    • Fig. S2. Finite elements simulations setup.
    • Fig. S3. Top view of a model displaying the angles between successive external vertices.
    • Fig. S4. Stiffness of each model in the parametric matrix.
    • Fig. S5. Energy absorbed by each model in the parametric matrix.
    • Fig. S6. Ratio of height to width of each model in the parametric matrix.
    • Fig. S7. Mass of each model in the parametric matrix.
    • Fig. S8. Specific energy for each model in the parametric matrix.
    • Fig. S9. Peak reaction force for each model in the parametric matrix.
    • Fig. S10. Effect of the width of the most external facets (parameter E).
    • Fig. S11. Force and angular speed profiles at a contact angle of 60° for naked and origami-protected configuration on rough and smooth surfaces.
    • Fig. S12. Force and angular speed profiles at a contact angle of 30° for naked and origami-protected configuration on rough and smooth surfaces.
    • Fig. S13. Force and angular speed profiles at a contact angle of 60° for fixed and rotary configuration on rough and smooth surfaces.
    • Fig. S14. Force and angular speed profiles at a contact angle of 90° for fixed and rotary configuration on rough and smooth surfaces.
    • Fig. S15. Mechanical and electronic setup of the collision experiments.
    • Fig. S16. Manufacturing process of the Rotorigami.
    • Table S1. Summary of experimental results.
    • Table S2. Control registers for the IMU.
    • Legends for movies S1 to S4
    • Reference (103)

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Oblique collision to a rough surface at a contact angle of 30° for the origami-protected and naked systems in the fixed and rotary configurations at 1.2 m/s (0.03×).
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Oblique collision to a rough surface at a contact angle of 60° for the origami-protected and naked systems in the fixed and rotary configurations at 1.2 m/s (0.03×).
    • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Normal collision to a rough surface for the origami-protected and naked systems in the fixed and rotary configurations at 1.2 m/s (0.03×).
    • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Normal collision to a rough surface for the origami-protected system in the fixed and rotary configurations at 2 m/s (0.03×) and collisions of the aerial vehicle in the Rotorigami configuration with different obstacles during flight demonstrations.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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