Research ArticleHUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION

Children conform, adults resist: A robot group induced peer pressure on normative social conformity

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Science Robotics  15 Aug 2018:
Vol. 3, Issue 21, eaat7111
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aat7111
  • Fig. 1 Overview of the experimental setup and visual stimulus.

    (A) SoftBank Robotics Nao humanoid robot used as confederate. (B) Overview of the participant seating arrangement. In the control condition, only the participant and experimenter were present. Participants’ judgments are collected in a clockwise order beginning with the confederates and ending with the subject. (C) Photograph of the arrangement in a real setup. (D) Example of the visual stimuli presented to participants via a computer screen. The target line is located on the left, and the three labeled comparison lines are located on the right. Participants say which of these matches the length of the target line.

  • Fig. 2 Discrimination accuracy across conditions.

    (A) Mean accuracy of the adults for the critical and neutral trials across each experimental condition (control, n = 20; robot-peer, n = 20; human-peer, n = 20). During the critical trials, the presence of human peers leads to a significant decrease in discrimination accuracy due to subjects conforming to the human confederates. (B) Mean accuracy of the children during the discrimination task (control, n = 21; robot-peer, n = 22; no human-peer condition). During the critical trials, the presence of the robot peers leads to a significant decrease in accuracy due to group conformity. Error bars denote 95% confidence intervals of the mean estimate; likelihood ratio test on logistic regression, *P < 0.01, **P < 0.001.

  • Fig. 3 Breakdown of incorrect participant responses.

    The ratio of conforming (i.e., going with the confederates’ response) against nonconforming responses in the critical trials, for the adults in the human-peer condition (n = 20) and for the children in the robot-peer condition (n = 22). From the adults, 83% of all incorrect responses were found to be conforming to the group of human confederates, whereas children’s conformity to the robots was 74%. **P < 0.001, two-tailed χ2 test.

Supplementary Materials

  • robotics.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/21/eaat7111/DC1

    Analysis of logit (logistic regression) model

    Fig. S1. Specifications of visual stimuli presented to the participants.

    Fig. S2. Flow diagram of the scripted robot behavior during the experimental trials.

    Table S1. Discrimination accuracy across conditions.

    Table S2. Specification of standard and comparison line lengths.

    Table S3. Dimensions of the stimuli presentation.

    Data S1. Text file of adult participant responses in experiment 1.

    Data S2. Text file of child participant responses in experiment 2.

    Further data

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Analysis of logit (logistic regression) model
    • Fig. S1. Specifications of visual stimuli presented to the participants.
    • Fig. S2. Flow diagram of the scripted robot behavior during the experimental trials.
    • Table S1. Discrimination accuracy across conditions.
    • Table S2. Specification of standard and comparison line lengths.
    • Table S3. Dimensions of the stimuli presentation.
    • Data S1. Text file of adult participant responses in experiment 1.
    • Data S2. Text file of child participant responses in experiment 2.
    • Further data

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    Files in this Data Supplement:

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