Research ArticleSOFT ROBOTS

Bioinspired living structural color hydrogels

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Science Robotics  28 Mar 2018:
Vol. 3, Issue 16, eaar8580
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aar8580
  • Fig. 1 Schemes of the structural color materials with autonomic regulation capability.

    (A) Structural color regulation mechanism of chameleons, which is achieved by controlling the dermal iridophores to actively tune their guanine nanocrystal lattice PBGs. (B) Schematic diagram of the construction of the bioinspired self-regulated structural color hydrogels by assembling engineered cardiomyocyte tissues on synthetic inverse opal hydrogel films.

  • Fig. 2 Biohybrid structural color hydrogel films with autonomic iridescence displaying.

    (A) Schematic diagram of the generation process of the inverse opal–structured color hydrogel films. (B to D) SEM images of the colloidal crystal template, the hydrogel hybrid colloidal crystal, and the inverse opal–structured hydrogel film, respectively. (E) Fluorescent image of cardiomyocytes cultured on the surface of the structural color hydrogel film. (F) Schematic diagram of the fixed process of the biohybrid structural color hydrogel film. (G) Optical microscope images of the structural color variation process of the fixed biohybrid hydrogel film during one myocardial cycle. (H) Reflection spectra of the structural color hydrogel film in (G). The left-most (green) trace corresponds to t8 and the right-most red trace corresponds to t1. (I) Relationship between the reflection shift values of the biohybrid structural color hydrogel film and the 20 beating cycles of the cardiomyocytes on its surface. Scale bars, 500 nm (B to D), 20 μm (E), and 1 mm (G).

  • Fig. 3 Cardiomyocytes cultured on microgroove-patterned structural color hydrogel films.

    (A) Schematic diagram of the generation process of the microgroove-patterned hydrogel films. (B) Fluorescent images of the cardiomyocytes cultured on the surface of the structural color hydrogel films with different concave side and convex side values, from left to right, are 20 and 30 μm, 40 and 30 μm, and 60 and 30 μm, respectively. (C) Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of the anisotropic laminar cardiomyocyte tissues on the surface of the microgroove-patterned inverse opal–structured hydrogel film. (D) Orientation angle frequency distribution of the cardiomyocytes on differently patterned substrates after 6 days of culture. Error bars represent SD. (E) Beating characterization of the cardiomyocytes on different patterned substrate. These dates were the average values of each day (10 min each time and five times every day). Scale bars, 20 μm (B) and 100 μm (C).

  • Fig. 4 The construction of soft structural color robotics by using the biohybrid hydrogels.

    (A) Schematic of a butterfly morphology hydrogel-generating thrust during the power of myocardial beating. (B) Schematic image of the butterfly skeleton with radial microgrooves. (C) Optical microscope images of the structural color variation process of the butterfly morphology structural color hydrogel during one myocardial cycle. Scale bar, 2 mm. (D) Dynamic reflectance wavelengths of the biohybrid hydrogel during one myocardial cycle at the position of the wing’s outer edge. (E) Relationship between the bending angles of the biohybrid butterfly and the characteristic reflection peak values in different positions from the bionic butterfly center.

  • Fig. 5 The applications of the biohybrid structural color hydrogels in a heart-on-a-chip system.

    (A) Schematic of the construction of the heart-on-a-chip by integrating the biohybrid structural color hydrogel into a bifurcated microfluidic system. (B) Image of the biohybrid structural color hydrogel integrated heart-on-a-chip. (C) Schematic of the bent-up process of the biohybrid structural color hydrogels in heart-on-a-chip. (D) Dynamically optical microscope images of biohybrid structural color hydrogels during one myocardial cycle in a heart-on-a-chip system. Scale bar, 1 mm. (E) Relationship between the reflection peak shift values and the beating velocity of the biohybrid structural color hydrogels treated with different concentrations of isoproterenol at the position noted with dotted line in (D) (distance from the bottom/the total parallel microgroove-patterned hydrogel, 2/3). (F) Relationships of the average peak shift values (left) and the beating frequency (right) to the bent-up process of the biohybrid structural color hydrogels treated with different concentrations of isoproterenol. Error bars represent SD.

Supplementary Materials

  • robotics.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/16/eaar8580/DC1

    Fig. S1. The fabrication of the inverse opal–structured hydrogel films.

    Fig. S2. SEM images of the surfaces of the biohybrid structural color hydrogel films with cardiomyocyte covering.

    Fig. S3. Results of the cardiomyocyte 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays.

    Fig. S4. The typical stress-strain (stress-stretch ratio) curves of the GelMA inverse opal structural color hydrogel.

    Fig. S5. The schematic diagram of two different approaches for regulating the structural colors of the inverse opal hydrogel films.

    Fig. S6. The relationships of the reflectance wavelength and the stretched intensity of the GelMA inverse opal structural color hydrogel films during the stretch.

    Fig. S7. Optical images and reflection spectra of the five different kinds of the microgroove-patterned inverse opal–structured hydrogel films.

    Fig. S8. SEM images of the microgroove-patterned inverse opal–structured hydrogel films.

    Fig. S9. The 3D reconstruction CLSM images of the anisotropic laminar cardiomyocyte tissues.

    Fig. S10. Shift of the reflection spectra of the structural colors films.

    Movie S1. Optical images of a free-standing biohybrid structural color hydrogel (first half) and dynamic reflection spectra of the biohybrid structural color hydrogel fixed by mask mold (second half).

    Movie S2. Optical images of a microgroove-patterned biohybrid structural color hydrogel.

    Movie S3. Optical images of a robotic butterfly morphology structural color hydrogel flying in medium.

    Movie S4. The bending process of a structural color heart-on-a-chip under normal medium (first half) and under isoproterenol stimulation (second half).

  • Supplementary Materials

    Supplementary Material for:

    Bioinspired living structural color hydrogels

    Fanfan Fu, Luoran Shang, Zhuoyue Chen, Yunru Yu, Yuanjin Zhao*

    *Corresponding author. Email: yjzhao{at}seu.edu.cn

    Published 28 March 2018, Sci. Robot. 3, eaar8580 (2018)
    DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aar8580

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. The fabrication of the inverse opal–structured hydrogel films.
    • Fig. S2. SEM images of the surfaces of the biohybrid structural color hydrogel films with cardiomyocyte covering.
    • Fig. S3. Results of the cardiomyocyte 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays.
    • Fig. S4. The typical stress-strain (stress-stretch ratio) curves of the GelMA inverse opal structural color hydrogel.
    • Fig. S5. The schematic diagram of two different approaches for regulating the structural colors of the inverse opal hydrogel films.
    • Fig. S6. The relationships of the reflectance wavelength and the stretched intensity of the GelMA inverse opal structural color hydrogel films during the stretch.
    • Fig. S7. Optical images and reflection spectra of the five different kinds of the microgroove-patterned inverse opal–structured hydrogel films.
    • Fig. S8. SEM images of the microgroove-patterned inverse opal–structured hydrogel films.
    • Fig. S9. The 3D reconstruction CLSM images of the anisotropic laminar cardiomyocyte tissues.
    • Fig. S10. Shift of the reflection spectra of the structural colors films.
    • Legends for movies S1 to S4

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.avi format). Optical images of a free-standing biohybrid structural color hydrogel (first half) and dynamic reflection spectra of the biohybrid structural color hydrogel fixed by mask mold (second half).
    • Movie S2 (.avi format). Optical images of a microgroove-patterned biohybrid structural color hydrogel.
    • Movie S3 (.avi format). Optical images of a robotic butterfly morphology structural color hydrogel flying in medium.
    • Movie S4 (.avi format). The bending process of a structural color heart-on-a-chip under normal medium (first half) and under isoproterenol stimulation (second half).

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