Research ArticleHUMANOIDS

Design principles of a human mimetic humanoid: Humanoid platform to study human intelligence and internal body system

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Science Robotics  20 Dec 2017:
Vol. 2, Issue 13, eaaq0899
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aaq0899
  • Table 1 Link length comparison between Kenshiro, Kengoro, and an average human.

    The body segments of each are indicated for comparison purposes. Human anthropometry data were obtained from (47) based on (48). The human length proportions were calculated, assuming the same body height as Kenshiro and Kengoro. The proportional values for r-u were not provided, whereas those of Kenshiro and Kengoro are described in the referenced information. Dash entries indicate excluded data.

    Embedded Image
    SignPartLength (mm)Length (mm)
    HumanKenshiro*Ratio (%)HumanKengoro*Ratio (%)
    aBody height1600160010016701670100
    bEye height1500147098.51560154098.8
    dShoulder height1310127097.31370131095.8
    eShoulder width41437289.943239591.4
    fChest height1150113098.61200114094.6
    gChest width278306110291328113
    hTrunk with head831897108868901104
    iUpper arm29727090.931127086.9
    lHip width(trochanter)30530910131929391.8
    pFoot width87.990.010291.890.199.0
    qFoot length24326010725424194.9
    rUpper body total682745
    sLower body total915924
    tChest thickness211203
    uHip width (joint)168151

    * The distances between the parts were measured on geometrical 3D models.

    † The hand was excluded from the list because Kenshiro does not have hands.

    • Table 2 Link weight comparison between Kenshiro, Kengoro, and an average human.

      The human data used in this comparison were reported in (49) based on the data of (27) and (50). Each human link weight was calculated assuming the same body weight as Kenshiro and Kengoro.

      NameRatio of segment weight (%)Weight (kg)Weight (kg)
      HumanKenshiroRatio (%)HumanKengoroRatio (%)
      Body weight10051.951.910056.556.5100
      Upper trunk18.417.3
      Upper arm2.701.401.951391.532.19144

      *The heads of Kenshiro and Kengoro include their necks.

      †Trunk includes upper trunk and pelvis.

      ‡Upper trunk includes spine, chest, and shoulder blade.

      §Kenshiro does not possess a hand.

      • Table 3 Muscle fidelity evaluation.

        The number of muscles was counted based on the muscle names corresponding to those of the human. The numbers of muscles in the musculoskeletal robots developed by (12, 51, 52) are described in the comparison.

        Number of muscles/Ratio to human
        HumanAthlete robot*Pneumat-BSAnthrobKenshiroKengoro
        Ratio (%)1005.8829.429.4
        Arm (without hand)37391019
        Ratio (%)1008.1024.327.051.4
        Leg (without foot)427162124
        Ratio (%)10016.738.050.057.1
        Whole body
        (without hand and foot)
        Ratio (%)10020.837.749.1
        Whole body (with hand and foot)133224053
        Ratio (%)10016.530.139.1

        *Legged robot

        †One-armed robot

        Supplementary Materials

        • Supplementary Materials

          Supplementary Material for:

          Design principles of a human mimetic humanoid: Humanoid platform to study human intelligence and internal body system

          Yuki Asano,* Kei Okada, Masayuki Inaba

          *Corresponding author. Email: asano{at}

          Published 20 December, Sci. Robot. 2, eaaq0899 (2017)
          DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aaq0899

          This PDF file includes:

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          Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

          • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Movements of Kengoro.
          • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Motion comparison between Kenshiro and Kengoro.

          Files in this Data Supplement:

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