Table 2. Comparison of existing automated construction research.

In many cases, data for metrics reported here were not directly available, and estimates have been made using other references. Please see text S4 for further explanation of methodology, particularly for entries marked with asterisks.

Automated construction system nameDeveloperPrimary fabrication mediaQuantitative metricsQualitative metrics
Largest fabricated structure (m3)Total work volume (m3)Typical volumetric fabrication rate (m3/hour)System classificationFabrication modalitySystem mobilityFabrication
DCPMediated Matter—MITSpray-foam insulation formwork56527861.728ArmExtrusionMobileOn-site
Apis CorApis CorConcrete extrusion3964340.375ArmExtrusionStaticOn-site
In-Situ FabricatorETH ZurichBrick assembly9.7534.70.176ArmAssemblyMobileOn-site
Hadrian 105Fastbrick RoboticsBrick assembly9.22459760.433ArmAssemblyMobileOn-site
Guedel Gantry RobotERNE AG/ETH ZurichTimber assembly52.25560.718GantryAssemblyStaticOff-site
BAAMCincinnati Incorporated/Oak Ridge National LaboratoryThermoplastic4.4232.30.033GantryExtrusionStaticOff-site
3DCPEindhoven University of TechnologyConcrete extrusion1.251130.144GantryExtrusionStaticOff-site
Concrete PrintingLoughborough UniversityConcrete extrusion0.861280.090GantryExtrusionStaticOff-site
Contour CraftingUniversity of Southern CaliforniaConcrete extrusion0.1455.7*0.018GantryExtrusionStaticOff-site
Flight Assembled ArchitectureETH ZurichFoam block assembly57.710000.375Swarm (aerial)AssemblyMobileOn-site
MinibuildersInstitute for Advanced Architecture of CataloniaPolymer-bonded marble powder1.501.50*0.015Swarm (terrestrial)ExtrusionMobileOn-site