Biohybrid actuators for robotics: A review of devices actuated by living cells

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Science Robotics  29 Nov 2017:
Vol. 2, Issue 12, eaaq0495
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aaq0495

Article Information

vol. 2 no. 12

Published By: 
  • Received September 25, 2017
  • Accepted November 7, 2017

Author Information

  1. Leonardo Ricotti1,*,
  2. Barry Trimmer2,
  3. Adam W. Feinberg3,
  4. Ritu Raman4,
  5. Kevin K. Parker5,
  6. Rashid Bashir6,
  7. Metin Sitti7,
  8. Sylvain Martel8,
  9. Paolo Dario1 and
  10. Arianna Menciassi1
  1. 1The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pontedera, Pisa, Italy.
  2. 2Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02153, USA.
  3. 3Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
  4. 4Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
  5. 5Disease Biophysics Group, Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  6. 6Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
  7. 7Max-Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart, Germany.
  8. 8NanoRobotics Laboratory, Department of Computer and Software Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.
  1. *Corresponding author. Email: leonardo.ricotti{at}


Article usage

Article usage: November 2017 to June 2018

Nov 2017661111177
Dec 2017374713361259
Jan 20185081739
Feb 20184421527
Mar 20185132124
Apr 20184493732
May 20182652824
Jun 2018150911